The time period ‘prosumer’ was first launched by Alvin Toffler in his 1980 ebook, The Third Wave, and explores the concept that as society shifts in the direction of the post-industrial age, the producer and the patron have amalgamated into the prosumer. The prosumer actively works to provide the providers and items they purchase and eat. For instance: self check-outs on the grocery store, the DIY furnishings of Ikea, automated ticket machines at practice stations, or on-line order and supply providers comparable to ‘e-bay’ or ‘Amazon’.
It’s fascinating how the time period ‘prosumer’ helps to blur the strains between the standard separate makes use of of city area. At one time grocers or store house owners would have lived within the area above their shops however since commercialism boomed within the 1950s, a transparent distinction between areas has been established (e.g. neighborhoods vs manufacturing facility areas). The introduction of prosumption has led to an absence of distinction between the place work and residential life begins and ends. This makes one surprise in regards to the impact that expertise goes to have on the city panorama in future years.

Prosumer is a compound phrase which is made up of the phrases producer and shopper. Understanding the idea of what a prosumer is signifies that we should first perceive the 2 phrases which create the phrase. A producer is a person or group or individuals who use the assets at their disposal to create one thing for the explanation of permitting different individuals to utilize or eat. The technique of manufacturing in earlier generations had been scarcely accessible within the media sector and solely professionals had any actual entry to the tools and assets to generate media content material Improvements in expertise comparable to digital cameras and publicly accessible video enhancing software program and lots of extra has meant that the technique of manufacturing have develop into extra broadly dispersed all through the inhabitants.[1] Shoppers are the individuals who make use of the providers or good which has been created by the producers. Earlier than the broader unfold of manufacturing instruments, shoppers had no actual say within the good and providers which had been produced and had been unable to make any type of contribution to the manufacturing course of, the one possibility accessible was every particular person’s desire e.g. do they like Coke or Pepsi? BBC or ITV [2] Throughout this time shoppers had been seen as passive as they might make no distinction to the manufacturing course of and needed to make do with what was being created by others, regardless of their services not essentially offering the whole lot that they wished.

As soon as the technique of manufacturing turned extra available to extra individuals, prosumers started to develop into extra pertinent, particularly within the media sector. Prosumers have the flexibility to create what they wished to suit their wants. Now not had been shoppers sure by the services which had been produced by giant manufacturing firms. Expertise improvements offers the prosumer the flexibility to generate content material or software program which appeals to them and may fill the gaps which haven’t been fulfilled by conventional technique of manufacturing

It is usually vital to notice that whereas prosumption would possibly appear to be a model new period – the place people develop into prosumers willingly, all for the flourishing society – it has lengthy been important to sure people. Quite than one thing people do of their spare-time as a alternative, e.g. DIY. Traditionally, post-war working class have needed to rebuild their lives, and in our up to date society sure components of the world are extra impoverished than others and prosumption is a logical plan of action for survival (“Important DIY”). Prosumption can’t be seen solely from a optimistic outlook of a brand new age, however must be seen below the context of the society it’s in.[3]

Historical past of the Prosumer Society[edit]

The Emergence of the Prosumer Society[edit]

Though the idea of the prosumer society would possibly look like up to date it has truly been current in numerous educational circles for the previous thirty-forty years and has existed in society for the reason that age of agriculture, twelve thousand years in the past by which farmers ate what they grew, and wives usual jewelry from pebbles and seashells.
Alvin Toffler tracks the emergence of right now’s prosumer as a consequence of various phases all through historical past, what he titles the three waves.

In Toffler’s ebook titled The Third Wave he argues that customers had been simply an observable prevalence solely seen within the Industrial Age. He fears that as society strikes into the publish industrial age that we’ll see a decline within the variety of pure shoppers.

The First Wave[edit]

The First Wave sees agriculture because the governing societal institution. The majority of individuals are prosumers as they develop or hunt their very own meals, vogue their very own clothes and create their very own types of leisure. Some minorities of society specialised in a craft or some type of particular manufacturing comparable to black-smithing and carpentry. On this the minority of peoples’ survival will come from buying and selling their providers for what others produce, branding them as shoppers.[4]

The Three Waves can be checked out in relation to bigger features of society, such because the dominant processes at work, altering norms and social relationships. This enables for a extra complete summation of every of the waves. In First Wave societies, in line with Toffler, the monopoly course of is self-production, the norm is primary survival, while the vital social relationships centre round kinship, friendship and tribe.

The Second Wave[edit]

Toffler’s Second Wave ran for almost all of the 18th and the early 19th century and could be outlined because the wave of integration as society embraced the thought of mass manufacturing and the meeting of low cost shopper items. The Second Wave is centralised across the Industrial Revolution as this introduced with it one piece of expertise that modified the way in which that items had been made and distributed; the engine. The introduction of the engine made potential for the huge circulation of products to be shipped all throughout the nation and create a bigger marketplace for prosumers.

The engine additionally enabled industrial society producers to introduce equipment that may produce large portions of products inside a smaller space of time than regular human labour and thus, reduce prices. This equipment additionally helped assist the excessive manufacturing ranges farmers would wish to keep up the wants of right now’s megalopolises.

The Second Wave society is outlined by the development and growth of a system dealign with commerce and alternate. From the primary wave society to the second we see a shift from survival to a break up between indulgence and effectivity. The norm of effectivity applies to manufacturing whereas the norm for indulgence is utilized to consumption. Regarding the social relationships at play friendship continues to be current though the brand new interplay of companies offers and contracts have now emerged because of the growth of alternate networks.

In his ebook, The Third Wave, Toffler argued that the Second Wave modified the connection of the prosumer/shopper perform of society and has led to some types of alienation for people as they not produce what they consumed. Majority of individuals left agriculture to work within the now dominant space of manufacturing home and workplace work, Second Wave work now overshadowed the outdated working model of the First Wave and introduced with it a lot greater ranges of interdependency and division of labour. This has supplemented the prosumer into the function of the patron as they don’t acquire from the merchandise that they make and use the revenue that they obtain to buy items from the market. It wasn’t till the 1970s and early 1980s had been pc expertise turned extra inexpensive and commenced making its manner up into our properties that Toffler’s Third Wave hit.

The Third Wave[edit]

In response to Toffler, the principle course of that takes place within the Third Wave is the demarketization and a rise in prosumption. As an alternative of mass consumption, society desires to focus extra on individuation.
Toffler states that the elevated prosumption is a results of the lowered working hours of 40 hours every week in comparison with a mean of 80–90 hours in the course of the Industrial Revolution. Due to the shortage of jobs an extra cutback in working hours and shared work locations will foster presumption much more and result in extra leisure time. This time can then be used to provide issues; thus individuals who work much less additionally get monetary savings that they might in any other case spend on rising service prices.
The dominant establishment is not the trade as within the Second Wave however the household and the house is extra vital than the office since extra time is spent there. It is usually the area the place the manufacturing takes place and the place individuation could be fulfilled. The function of household and neighbours beneficial properties significance and so they exchange co-workers and individuation replaces effectivity.

The Third Wave is located to be after the economic age and situates presumption into the standard family.[4] This can be attributed to the affect of the World Wars (particularly within the Western World), individuals of their households had their very own manner of manufacturing and consumption – prosumption was a vital a part of the working class throughout battle instances, however advanced post-World Conflict II to be a leisure exercise as properly.[3]

Rise of Internet 2.0[edit]

The place looking “DIY” offers about 15,600,000 outcomes.

The event of internet 2.Zero applied sciences has created a big improve in web prepared, cellular gadgets. The elevated growth and extensive use of Wi-Fi networks has created a society the place on-line communication has develop into an on a regular basis prevalence for a big inhabitants of the world. These developments have made internet 2.Zero applied sciences a fundamental space of prosumption.[5] There are lots of web sites the place individuals are in a position to add their very own content material, comparable to YouTube for instance. Different web sites comparable to Wikipedia enable for the modification of already current content material. The manufacturing could be writing an article for a Wikipedia web page or importing a video to YouTube. Issues comparable to audio and video manufacturing, which in earlier instances, was solely accessible to professionals who had entry to the technique of manufacturing. Technological developments have meant that mainly anybody who has a sensible telephone now has the aptitude to make a movie, with using the digicam and may then be uploaded and shared on-line straight from that machine. The consumption of internet 2.Zero applied sciences differs relying on what sort of content material is generated on that website. Due to this fact, consumption could be listening to a music on SoundCloud or studying a weblog publish. There are totally different levels of prosumption, from a easy like or remark to elaborate texts uploaded on the net. People take part within the manufacturing of on-line content material for quite a few causes, one being that they get pleasure from creating their weblog, music, video or Fb publish and so they get pleasure from sharing it with their group of that website.[4] The websites develop into a group as a result of everybody who is part of the manufacturing and consumption of the content material is ready to talk via remark part or social media. Somebody will produce a video and publish it on YouTube. Then they could watch a video which has been uploaded by another person and touch upon the video, providing recommendation or potential criticism. This might lead on to some type of collaboration between the customers who might go on to create one thing collectively after which add it for his or her on-line group to get pleasure from, which is able to offers these prosumers a way of belonging.[4] The distinction of prosumption on-line in comparison with earlier generations is that the prosumers are typically not going to be consuming the content material that they’ve produced themselves however as a substitute will eat content material which is analogous to that of what they’ve created throughout the similar on-line group. Prosumption on internet 2.Zero applied sciences is usually a part of a collaborative effort. Customers will generate a small a part of the content material after which be capable of eat the content material in its entirety.[5]

Place in a Capitalist society[edit]

Historic Implications[edit]

Its frequent data that for the reason that late 1800s, the main target has shifted from the slave-oriented compelled labor with its clear hierarchical construction of benefactor and employee to a extra fashionable work ethic with the emergence of capitalism. Karl Marx (1818–1883) is probably the most distinguished and well-known determine on this discipline and by taking a look at these historic and sociological implications then prosumerism could be understood within the fashionable world. Marxism states that individuals are compelled to work with the intention to earn the cash they should purchase what they want or need. Within the work drive, Capitalists give attention to steadiness sheets as a substitute of flesh and blood individuals, implicating an absence of individuality and utilizing ‘individuals as instruments.’



With a view to break free from this cycle of exploitation, prosumption gives the proper various. In Edward Comor’s article ‘Contextualizing and Critiquing the Incredible Prosumer: Energy, Alienation and Hegemony’ (2010) he argues that individuals are in a position to absolutely specific themselves via their actions as a prosumer. It permits the entrenchment of the established order as individuals who had been as soon as guide laborers are actually answerable for their very own enterprise choices.

ICT and the development of expertise in recent times has enabled untouchable growth by which manufacturing, distribution, alternate and consumption has shifted limits to unimaginable proportions.

Nevertheless, this will trigger many issues. Tutorial web sites that run on free public contributions create a really stark distinction to the thought of capitalism. Some prosumers could obtain recognition for his or her involvement however no monetary compensation. With this information on the Web for anybody to have entry to different individuals might regurgitate the data and transfer it to different media platforms with the intention to make a revenue.
To ensure that prosumerism to be a hit and pose a problem to the capitalist society by which it exists then the person prosumers themselves have to work and create primarily for private, social wants fairly than for alternate or revenue. Comor writes, ‘whether or not or not what’s produced/ co-created advantages the person or the group, if the aim and results of prosumer labor is the development of alternate values or earnings, established order relations will largely stay unchanged,’ emphasizing this integral level.

Capitalist Oriented Companies[edit]

Web sites couldn’t perform in the way in which that they do with out prosumers. As that is the case, capitalists are very drawn to those that prosume on the web, as they’re a supply of knowledge at a low value. This low value technique due to this fact causes capitalist companies to maximise their earnings. It’s stated that prosumers acquire the best “materials beneficial properties” (Ritzer et al. 2012) on account of them doing many of the work with no pay. Prosumers usually do that on websites comparable to Amazon, the place the ebook costs could also be decrease compared to shops comparable to Waterstones. Amazon’s costs are marginally cheaper thank Waterstones because the prosumers, that are consuming the merchandise, are doing many of the work for Amazon. These prosumers are due to this fact permitting Amazon to achieve a bigger revenue on account of chopping their analysis prices. Via social networking websites, prosumers are sometimes bombarded with adverts from web sites which encourage prosumers to click on on them. When finished so, in addition to being satisfied to purchase a product they could not of wanted, prosumers give web sites their private knowledge which permit them to additional goal different adverts. eBay and Google are additionally web sites which are a capitalist oriented enterprise. This use of capitalist companies could spotlight the truth that prosumers could also be being exploited with out even understanding it.

Prosumption and Alienation[edit]

In Comor’s article ‘Contextualizing and Critiquing the Incredible Prosumer: Energy, Alienation and Hegemony’ (2010),[6] he notes on Marx’s view the a fundamental a part of life in capitalist and political economics is alienation. On account of human nature individuals have begun to idolize social merchandise which in flip has seen man being owned by his personal creation and in outcome ‘misplaced possession of himself’, (Fromm, 1955: 115).[7]

Society and the Idea of the Prosumer[edit]

The Idea of the Prosumer[edit]

The idea of a ‘prosumer’ was a phrase first coined by cultural theorist Alvin Toffler in 1980. The phrase is related to the hybrid mannequin that mixes two separate binaries that are the patron and the producer. This was the primary time this phrase had been used, nonetheless the argument of the prosumer society has been round for a fantastic deal longer together with work by properly know theorist Karl Marx amongst others. The idea is in relation to how we in society are each the patron and the producer, and the affect this has on different elements. It’s higher not to think about these as two separate issues however to contemplate it as an equilibrium between each. In society normally certainly one of these elements dominate, and we’ll expertise each a prime heavy shopper or producer society. When each of those elements have reached a steadiness that is known as ‘pure prosumption’.[8]

Prosumer Principle’s Relation to Society[edit]

When it comes to how prosumer principle pertains to society, there was a shift over time seeing a decline within the materials trade and an rebellion of the immaterial. This comes with the fragmentation of the economic the place manufacturing is turning into ever extra disintegrated from guide labour and extra focused on the concepts and data behind the merchandise. Contemplating the emphasis positioned on issues comparable to promoting and advertising and marketing, we in society have gotten ever extra concerned in what we’re consuming and with that what we’re producing.

In society prosumption impacts us all every day. For instance, the lowered workforce in main supermarkets the place it we’re at all times being inspired to ‘self scan’ or extra just lately ‘scan as you store’ making the necessity for human cashiers out of date and placing the patrons to work. The function of the prosumer is strictly what it could recommend: a being which each consumes and produces in society. This might be producing with labour, or data acquired, and consuming the identical merchandise which they help in producing.

Toffler’s Principle Of Prosumption in Phrases Of Society[edit]

Most of Toffler’s key theories and philosophies could be present in his three books; ‘Future Shock’ (1970), ‘The Third Wave’ (1980) and ‘Powershift’ (1990). These three books come collectively to type a trilogy that develops Toffler’s thought about change in a seamless dialogue.
Toffler was all for what would occur to individuals when their complete society would change and rework into one thing new and surprising. His ebook ‘Future Shock,’ appears into this means of change and the way change impacts individuals and organisations. ‘The Third Wave,’ focuses on the instructions by which these modifications are taking us, and ‘Powershift’ offers with the management of future modifications, who will form them and the way.
Toffler anticipated the break-up of the nuclear household, the genetic revolution, the ‘throw-away’ society, the resurgence of emphasis on schooling, and the elevated significance of data in society.[9]

In Toffler’s view, up to date society is shifting away from the considered manufacturing and consumption as separate forces and is shifting towards the Third Wave. This indicators the reintegration within the ‘rise of the prosumer.’ [10] The dominant establishment in Third Wave societies is the house, by which most individuals keep on with their very own manufacturing and consumption. As a result of individuals are actually producing and consuming extra of their very own items and providers, markets develop into much less vital as a result of they exist with the intention to meet the alternate wants in these societies the place most manufacturing is for alternate.[11]

Social Modifications[edit]

The Decline in Conventional Manufacturing[edit]

The overall decline within the significance and involvement of what’s held historically as manufacturing inside society, in line with Ritzer, has led most economies throughout the developed world to give attention to consumption versus manufacturing.[12] Materials labour, one of many key features of this type of manufacturing, has taken a much less distinguished standing inside up to date manufacturing, and is as a substitute being met by the elevated look of immaterial manufacturing.[13] This decline could be famous as the primary of a number of social modifications that Ritzer cites as causes for the enlargement of prosumption inside each sensible and educational contexts.

The expertise of the trendy shopper manufacturing has two particular extremes. In a single excessive, shoppers give cause and improve worth to a sure product, which will embody firm interplay, that is also called a type of immaterial labour, which is proven within the instance of tourism. Whereas in one other excessive, shoppers truly develop into a co-producer of an organization’s manufacturing and examples of this are proven in sure vogue manufacturers.[14] Additional, shoppers who’ve an involvement with the corporate, are keen to pay extra for that particular kind of product, which was recognised by Franke and Piller with the introduction of the watch tool-kit case.[15] It’s this excessive that provides a sign to simply how vital the patron has develop into in current instances within the decline of conventional manufacturing.[16] Proof by Manolis has given an perception into the importance for enhancing the customer-company collaboration the place, primarily, the patron turns into the producer.[17] The primary features of what new approaches have been made into fashionable manufacturing includes an increase of immaterial labour due the truth that it provides socioeconomic worth to the manufacturing.[18] This has even resulted in firms collaborating with the patron actions which creates extra market worth and thus creating competitors throughout the markets.[19] The decline in conventional manufacturing has successfully made manner for the brand new prosumer course of which inevitably has launched an vital change that recognises shoppers as staff, which will increase the worth of manufacturing within the increasing prosumer society.

The Rise of Immaterial Manufacturing[edit]

The shift in focus from materials to immaterial manufacturing in society is mentioned by Ritzer because the second social change that has led to a rise in each the sensible and educational profile of prosumption.[12] Concepts for enhancements to current strategies, new product designs and different such issues are actually seen as extra vital than the manufacturing of the tip product itself.[12] An instance of this shift in motion could be throughout the cellular expertise trade. Firms, comparable to Apple Inc. have marketed their merchandise not by the dimensions of the manufacturing or bodily manufacturing, however fairly upon the brand new options of the product,[20] comparable to software program performance and {hardware} options. The most recent cellular working system or an elevated display screen measurement are actually seen as extra vital than the variety of merchandise manufactured.

It can be famous that prosumption has been additional enabled throughout the context of immaterial manufacturing. The manufacturing of open-source pc software program depends on prosumption as a method to survive, because the newer software program is developed and examined by customers of the software program itself. For instance, Linux is a free and open-source working system that can be utilized by anybody and contributed to by anybody at no cost.[21]

Manufacturers and Prosumers[edit]

Branding, and its relationship with the patron, has advanced in a manner that has each accommodated and inspired the involvement of the patron. The shared meanings that embody a model have been topic to the contributions of prosumers, whose interplay with the model has, in essence, produced the model’s identification. These created meanings are referred to by Arvidsson as a ” “social relation, a shared which means, an emotional involvement that was not there earlier than”.[22] This utilisation of the prosumer by manufacturers can be seen to contribute to sure shared experiences and values which are intrinsically related to a sure model.

The concept of those shared experiences and values could be seen within the case of quite a few totally different manufacturers. For instance, there’s a stage of belief that exists between eBay customers that took place from profitable interactions between stated customers which led to this brand-wide stage of belief.[22] One other case could be that of the favored online game Group Fortress 2. The sport, whereas initially developed by the sport developer, Valve Company, has functioned with an enormous quantity of prosumer assist within the type of content material contributions. This assist has led to complete sport updates that had been compiled from consumer generated content material alone, such because the Finish of the Line replace from December 2014. The Finish of the Line replace featured quite a few in-game options, together with beauty objects and a multiplayer map, in addition to a 15 minute lengthy animated brief, all of which had been created by customers.[23] The content material produced for this replace was added to Valve’s consumer generated content material hub: Steam Workshop.[24]

All in all, in an economic system and society which values symbolic merchandise like manufacturers and vogue, self-named shoppers are simply as productive because the self-named producers from whom they purchase their services.[25]

The McDonaldisation of Society[edit]

Jurgenson got here up with the idea by which people are inflicting a rise within the rationalization, by way of what’s consumed in society, thus making it related to acknowledge Ritzer’s work on the ‘McDonaldisation of Society’.[26] That is the time period he established to clarify the rise of the significance of the patron in manufacturing. This relates and expands on the notion of rationalisation first launched by Weber, the place he claimed that it was the forms that resulted within the paradigm of rationalisation.[26] Nevertheless, Ritzer’s work has acknowledged that it’s the shoppers that maintain extra significance within the final result of companies. McDonaldisation is how Ritzer noticed fast-food eating places and recognised the processes that they’ve undergone. Particularly, the modifications which have occurred have been for the reason that mid-1950s to which eating places have launched methods, comparable to, the client getting their very own drinks and even their meals and just lately there was the emphasis on the client with the ability to make their very own meals (i.e. sandwich bars). Ritzer even famous that fast-food companies and different industries, like airways, launched these explicit methods, which additionally included making the shoppers clear up after themselves.[27] This gives perception into the notion that prosumer society is in impact.

Ritzer acknowledged that this was the start of the prosumer and the decline of the employer. This new manner of placing the prosumers to work is what Tapscott and Williams referred to as the ‘wikinomic’ mannequin which Tapscott developed and recognised as a serious a part of the rationalisation of companies, by way of the brand new course of by which shoppers have gotten producers. That is related to the introduction of Internet 2.Zero and the way it has established the web in turning into extra predominant in relation to the prosumer society, which was acknowledged by Beer and Burrows, as Internet 2.Zero permits customers to provide content material.[28] Thus, Ritzer’s work holds significance in how the prosumer society is influencing companies, particularly the web because it gives an perception into the why the prosumer will stay vital within the prosumer society.

The Rise Of The Expertise Economic system[edit]

Ritzer notes that we’re more and more dwelling in a society the place immaterial experiences have gotten increasingly vital instead of bodily, materials items. That’s, perspective is essential in any social scenario. Even the place there’s a pre-existing tradition, or an meant response {that a} shopper will expertise, regardless of the managed and structured atmosphere, we nonetheless assist to provide the general expertise. Ritzer makes use of the instance of going to Disney World. There may be clearly a kind of expertise that we’re imagined to relate to in its prefabricated, manufactured world. Nevertheless, everybody could have various accounts of a go to to Disney World, as a result of they’re mixing the meant expertise with their very own actuality and distinctive historical past – some issues could resonate way more strongly with some individuals than with others, therefore heightening the enjoyment of the general event.

Nevertheless, versus the Decline in Conventional Manufacturing, or the Rise in Immaterial Manufacturing, Ritzer factors out that we now have at all times had such experiences. There isn’t any dichotomy between producer and shopper since experiences do, and at all times need to, contain each. Whereas the thought of expertise as an economic system could also be new, the problems concerned actually usually are not. Plus, experiences in themselves are at all times immaterial, and as such could be handed on way more simply from producers to shoppers.

The Function of Technological Improvement[edit]

As totally different applied sciences develop, it is just pure that they’re utilized in new methods, at instances changing guide labour. Discussing the popularisation of self-checkout lanes at supermarkets, Ritzer reminds us that individuals used to need to work there, and carry out numerous duties for the patron. Now nonetheless, prosumers do the overwhelming majority of the work themselves, and the people who find themselves left nonetheless working there are inclined to do rather more immaterial labor than they used to, by advising individuals find out how to use the machines or serving to when the prosumer has encountered a difficulty. And as Ritzer additionally says, these self-service machines are actually commonplace in a number of industries – for instance self-checkin terminals at airports or cinemas. What is essential to many of those applied sciences was the event of one other expertise in itself: the credit score/debit card. Now not is it at all times vital for somebody to need to depend cash to verify prosumers are paying the right amount, expertise does all of it for them.

The Trendy Relevance Of Prosumption in Modern Society[edit]

Modern society has seen a considerable amount of social modifications more and more develop concerning the observe of prosumption and the eye it gained by theorists. Nevertheless, a considerable socical change might be associated to that of the web and the social community websites which have solely been established within the final decade or so via using Internet 2.Zero platforms the place prosumers eat and produce user-generated content material on. For instance, social community websites comparable to Twitter and Fb, content-sharing websites comparable to YouTube, Instagram and Flickr, the blogosphere comparable to WordPress, and Wikipedia are solely a small variety of examples. Nevertheless an issue happens as it’s on these platforms that it’s most troublesome to distinguish between producers and shoppers.[29]

An instance that Ritzer makes use of is using “a digital Twitter backchannel at occasions that happen in a bodily area”.[30] Earlier than mobiles and apps had been invented you’ll discover “audio system” at these occasions whom “produced” speeches, and there was an viewers “consuming” (e.g. Listening to) them. Engagement would happen when the viewers members would take notes and generally ask questions on the finish of the speech.

Nevertheless, right now, solely a small minority of the viewers tends to stay to this conventional method, with the bulk now combining this with a extra up to date method via using the social networking website, Twitter, the place viewers members will now publish “tweets” in regards to the what’s being stated within the speech they’re consuming. In a manner, it might be argued that the viewers now have probably the most highly effective function within the convention, as what has been shared on Twitter in regards to the occasion is now on the web for the worldwide viewers to witness and reply to. Due to this fact, this highlights the truth that expertise has turned a blessing within the fashionable world, and that the convention viewers is no longer solely the shoppers of the speeches or the producers of their tweets, however the prosumers who concurrently eat conferences and produce their very own on-line content material. Because of this, it’s clear why Internet 2.Zero has been described as “essential within the growth of the ‘technique of prosumption.'” [31] Nevertheless it’s also evident that prosumption was not invented on Internet 2.Zero both. However, given the rising reputation of its platforms comparable to social networking websites, it may be argued that it’s each probably the most plentiful location of prosumption, and its most important promoter as a ‘technique of prosumption’.

One other instance of a web-based platform that demonstrates the foundations of the Internet 2.Zero idea are blogs. Blogs seek advice from a easy webpage consisting of paragraphs of knowledge, private diary entries, fan writing or hyperlinks organized chronologically with the latest first, together with area for feedback for guests to go away. This posting and commenting course of contributes to the character of running a blog, permitting weighted dialog between the first writer and a gaggle of secondary remark contributors. Up to now blogs weren’t quite common, with many blogs by no means found or had a really small viewers. The facility that individuals need to share their opinions and knowledge with the worldwide viewers, as properly the individuals partaking in them has created the well-known blogosphere that we now have right now, permitting them to function in their very own atmosphere. Nevertheless, as expertise has grown extra subtle, bloggers have began to include multimedia of their blogs which now consists of photo-blogs and video blogs (vlogs), and permits bloggers to add materials immediately from their cell phones. An instance of this might be the blogger ‘Zoella’ who has made ‘vlogging’ her full-time occupation and on account of working with advertisers, she has earned a whole lot of hundreds from it. Due to this fact, it’s clear simply how a lot Internet 2.Zero has influenced society via using the web rising and social platforms like Fb, Twitter and YouTube rising which has allowed many to share their blogs to a a lot bigger viewers thus making the affect of prosumption even bigger.

The Realm Of The Media[edit]

The results of the Expertise Economic system and Technological Change as mentioned above are very clear within the realm of the media, and a extremely vital proportion of the analysis into the thought of prosumerism has been in relation to the media. Ritzer alludes to Axel Bruns’ work, the place the thought of the passive shopper almost about the media is rejected. As an alternative, the patron of media is actively and more and more bringing their very own interpretation to what they’re experiencing, which means they’re producing their very own content material simply as a lot as they’re consuming it.

Regardless of the thought of the prosumer being generally related to the economic system, Ritzer makes the purpose that it will possibly apply to a much wider scope of ideas. He offers the examples of on a regular basis ideologies comparable to politics and artwork, and properly as extra summary concepts comparable to identification that prosumerism could be utilized to.

The Function of Prosumption[edit]

The primary objective of prosumption in right now’s world, irrespective of whether or not it’s created by a person or a gaggle (as acknowledged above by Cornor), is to create the simplest method to alternate revenue and total values and knowledge. Particularly these days in a really fashionable and ‘computerized’ world, the place social networks play a major half in our lives, we goal to be energetic creators and customers of services. To not simply be passive shoppers, however extra importantly to be energetic prosumers. For instance, as Ritzer and Jurgenson recommend: in quick meals eating places the place we – the diners are anticipated to hold our personal meals to the desk or a automotive; or by pumping petrol by your self at a petroleum station; and even being concerned in novice pornography (e.g. Ladies Gone Wild video collection). Nevertheless, with the massive assist of the Web, it might be argued that probably the most of prosumption is occurring within the on-line world. The most typical instance right here could be the Wikipedia itself, the place the customers can generate, edit, replace and touch upon articles. One other instance could be using social networking websites, the place individuals produce/publish photos, movies, statues and feedback to work together with one another and type communities within the on-line world by consuming each other’s informations.[32] Due to this fact, the final function of the prosumer is to co-create the world we reside in, satisfying the wants of shoppers in addition to producers.

The Function of Prosumption in Politics[edit]

Prosumtion inside politics has develop into extra distinguished in recent times. Because of the expansion in new applied sciences there are extra methods of displaying how prosumption is part of fashionable politics. For instance, if the federal government is making an attempt to go a invoice, they produce the invoice and if it then will get handed and made into a brand new regulation, then they’re consuming the invoice with the remainder of society, hereby displaying the prosumption of a invoice. With politicians comparable to David Cameron on media platforms comparable to Twitter, the political can, supposedly, be in direct contact with most of the people. The political class can affect individuals with only a few phrases and the clicking of a button. They produce info for the general public to learn, the general public obtain it on their telephones or pc and may remark and critique it instantly in a public and comparatively free area. This enables public opinion to get again to the federal government and straight into the prime-minister private cellular. Additionally just by utilizing this contemporary media platform it’d make this candidate extra interesting to youthful voters.

Propaganda is a really sturdy type of management, but it may be seen as a kind of prosumption in politics on account of the truth that, when the federal government sends out info to the general public through tv, newspapers or on-line and many others. they’re sending out info which is able to profit them and get extra voters. Hereby the cycle of manufacturing the data and consuming extra voters could be properly recognized.
Furthermore, democracy has been a platform for political presumption manner earlier than social media was ever invented. Courting again to historic Greek civilisation, democracy has allowed politicians to promote themselves and their political ideology and coverage to most of the people, utilizing this info the general public analyse this info and vote for who they wish to be in energy. That is an instance of a cooperative relationship between the patron and the producer the place the patron has an impact and acutely aware choice dictating the way in which the producer conducts his/herself.

The Function of Prosumption within the Office[edit]

Via the introduction of latest expertise, the significance of the function of the prosumer has develop into way more vital. Returning to the thought of the patron additionally turning into the producer in right now’s society, we are able to use the instance of grocery retailers, as clients used to fill out order varieties and the grocery store would accumulate the objects they desired, permitting the client to fall into the function of the patron and the grocery store into the function of the producer. Nevertheless, because of the improve within the reputation of supermarkets, shoppers have been compelled to additionally develop into producers. That is because of the change in the way in which clients purchase issues, within the instance of the grocery store; clients are actually doing many of the materials work in acquiring their objects.

Self checkout utilizing NCR Fastlane machines

Nevertheless, in relation to the brand new types of expertise, we are able to use the introduction of self checkouts to successfully convey how expertise has enhanced the function of presumption. Self-checkouts have develop into extra frequent, including additional to the shoppers work, as they now, not solely have to assemble their objects, but in addition scan and bag them too. Lots of the staff, who’re nonetheless employed by supermarkets, stay there, to not assist with materials labour, however to assist help clients in utilizing the brand new expertise of the self checkouts.

New expertise, particularly the introduction of computer systems and the web, has created an entire new technique of prosumption. There aren’t any fast staff on the web, which due to this fact signifies that clients are virtually on their very own on the subject of the immaterial work required to search out what it’s that they’re in search of. For instance, a prosumer should discover a web site which sells the product that they’re in search of, then evaluation the product to make sure that it’s precisely what they need, then they need to place an order and pay for it. With many individuals utilizing the web as their fundamental methodology of consumption it is clear that presumption is what defines many of the web.[12]

The Function of Prosumption in Arts[edit]

Traditionally, in addition to these days, prosumption additionally performs a major function within the space of arts. Seio Nakajima explains in his article Prosumption in Artwork that artists use/CONSUME instruments and supplies to PRODUCE artwork, due to this fact making this a prosumption relationship. Their affect on different artists (via concepts or types) can be outlined as prosumerism. Nakajima goes towards the frequent thought of artwork being a ‘romantic delusion’, claiming that in actual fact, it’s a social exercise and a enterprise. Clearly artists are nonetheless “a uniquely artistic drive who, unbiased of their audiences, create and interpret artwork.” [33] Nevertheless, an enormous a part of the world of artwork could be very a lot linked with the idea of prosumption, and the connection between the PRODUCER – artist, and the CONSUMER – viewers. He additionally means that there are totally different types of artwork which painting prosumption in a different way.

Readymade artwork → the artist and viewers are seen as equal, they each consider if the item could be thought of as artwork or not. “The artists eat current merchandise to provide artwork and viewers eat artwork to provide judgments of the artwork.” [33]

Pop artwork → additionally “blurs the road between mass shopper commodities and unique inventive creations”.[33] Prosumers in artwork CONSUME objects to PRODUCE artwork. Artists use totally different modes of interpretations, comparable to collage, parody, remixing, sampling and many others. to problem their already privileged place. They assemble new which means to be judged and reevaluated by/with the general public viewers, usually based mostly on already (at the least partially) current supplies.

Relational artwork → claims that “artwork is just not a static or unbiased object however is a dynamic course of via which the artwork is produced within the context of viewers’ participation inside inventive communities of interpretation.” [33] The which means is created although a type of social dialogue and a dialogue across the matter/object of artwork. There’s a relationship shaped between the artists (PRODUCERS) and the viewers/viewers (CONSUMERS). Viewers’s views, opinions, reactions and discussions concerning the artwork itself, create a type of catalyst, sparking up extra reflection.

Moreover, Katherine Chen, in her article Creative Prosumption: Co-Artistic Destruction at Burning Man additionally emphasizes on the significance of being energetic, impressed and artistically expressive prosumers, fairly than simply being passive shoppers of the artwork. Inner “inclusive group logic” which she demonstrates within the instance of ‘Burning Man’ focuses on broadening the entry to arts, what’s created and the way that must be consumed, in addition to stating that everybody might be an artist. She additionally explores the facet of artwork as a Co-creative Destruction. This implies, that firstly there’s a co-creative means of prosumption, and ” what’s created is just not meant to endure however to be loved within the second and destroyed by prosumers on the finish of the competition.” [33]

Due to this fact, the function of prosumption in arts is specializing in taking energetic half within the means of prosuming, stating that each side PRODUCERS (artists) and CONSUMERS (viewers) are each equally vital. As artwork is now portrayed as a social enterprise, the 2 sides rely upon one another on the subject of prosuming the artwork.

The Function of Prosumption in Information[edit]

Citizen Journalism[edit]

The function of the citizen journalist has develop into extra distinguished in right now’s information trade with many individuals now having the chance to each eat and produce newsworthy content material. The rise of cell phones and digital cameras has allowed the common individual to have the ability to movie spontaneous happenings that absolutely certified journalists haven’t any manner of attending. Through the London bombings of 2005 reporters had been unable to achieve entry to London Underground stations and it was as a substitute the duty of the peculiar Londoners on the scene to offer the media and journalism with the footage that each outlet yearned for. Photographs and movies had been taken and thought of by many to have extra resonance with the general public as they had been dim, grainy and shaky, however extra importantly, as a result of they had been documenting an angle to an occasion because it was truly taking place.[34]

This concept of residents performing the function of absolutely certified journalists has helped journalism develop into extra private and in methods just like the London bombings and the 9/11 assaults they make the information extra dramatic and actual. However to say that members of the general public, with none formal coaching, can assume the function of a journalist is very controversial. In actuality, many amateurs producing content material on-line do not purport to behave as journalists. A extra correct phrase is that of pro-am (skilled novice) or amateurs with media abilities.[35] On account of their lack of knowledge and professionalism the standard and legitimacy could be extremely questioned. In late 2014 a video of a ‘Syria hero boy’ below fireplace was utilized by many information firms till it was ultimately revealed that this had in actual fact been staged and filmed by Norwegian filmmaker Lars Klevberg.This introduced into the highlight a lot of citizen journalism’s pitfalls. Citizen journalists are utilized in each information outlet right now and due to this fact there may be the chance that in each newsroom there might be a use of faux or synthetic materials leading to inaccurate reporting. The citizen journalist doesn’t have a journalistic code to go by and may create potential faux movies and many others. no matter whether or not it’s an unethical journalistic observe as a result of they’re simply primarily a pro-am, not knowledgeable journalist.

Running a blog[edit]

It’s extremely contested whether or not running a blog could be seen as a kind of reports or journalism nevertheless it appears such mainstream shops just like the BBC, The Guardian and Sky Information are starting to just accept its place within the occupation and are encouraging their journalists to weblog. Journalist Felix Salmon wrote: “There’s convergence occurring – information organisations have gotten bloggier, and blogs have gotten newsier – and that course of works to the good thing about each.” [36] Running a blog has develop into probably the most in style platforms for the prosumer to inhabit as a result of it offers them the proper alternative to each create and skim content material in the identical easy-to-access atmosphere. However on account of the truth that blogs are inclined to even be a platform for numerous discussions then the problem arises that the distinction between information and dialogue (and even hearsay) turns into blurred. Everybody on social media or the online that write about present affairs and arguably “weblog” all have totally different info and opinion and this makes it simpler for opinions and hearsay dialogue to be mistaken for factual information.

The Function of Teachers[edit]

Over the previous thirty years there was a current explosion of educational curiosity in to the world of prosumption however the time period has at all times been implied in earlier work from Karl Marx and later by students comparable to McLuhan and Nevitt.

Karl Marx[edit]

Marx is mostly thought to be the last word theorist of manufacturing, particularly industrial manufacturing within the early days of capitalism however he clearly understood that manufacturing and consumption had been inevitably, inherently and dialectically interrelated. He famous that individuals alternated between being sellers (producers) and patrons (producers) and that this was going to have an effect in years to come back.


Toffler firstly argued that prosumption was predominant in pre-industrial societies; he referred to as this the ‘first wave’. It was adopted by a ‘second wave’ of marketization that drove ‘a wedge into society, that separated these two capabilities, thereby giving beginning to what we now name producers and shoppers’.[37][38] In Toffler’s analysis in 1980, he expands on prosumers and emphasises that the facility of the method of manufacturing will ultimately be taken over by the prosumers themselves. That is mentioned within the third wave the place Toffler means that prosumers will immediately customise and have interaction with the merchandise they eat. Inside his work Toffler considers the prosumer to be the creation of a brand new civilization.

Philip Kotler[edit]

The time period ‘Prosumer’ as famous earlier was coined by Alvin Toffler in his 1980 ebook. This concept was expanded upon by Philip Kotler in 1986 who coined his personal time period [the] ‘prosumer motion’ implying a socialital and digital shift over time. Writing within the 1980s it’s clear that each of those theorists had been forward of their time and it might be argued that they ‘capitalised’ on this concept earlier than it turned of curiosity within the mainstream educational discipline.

Ritzer and Jurgenson[edit]

Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption. Ritzer and Jurgenson have a look at the character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’. They argue that prosumption is just not new however is definitely primordial. It’s maintained that earlier types of capitalism (producer and shopper capitalism) had been themselves characterised by prosumption. Prosumption has turned more and more central because of the current explosion of user-generated content material on-line.[39]

Different influential theorists[edit]

Pieter Verdegem & Shenja van der Graaf[edit]

Of their contribution Verdegem and van der Graff have a look at how we now have moved from participatory
tradition to a type of ‘prosumer capitalism’. The primary idea celebrates consumer expression and
civic engagement by which prosumers are actively partaking within the manufacturing and distribution
of content material. The second idea factors at how the energetic function of customers has resulted in a brand new type of capitalism, i.e. prosumer capitalism.

Prahalad and Ramaswamy[edit]

They have a look at prosumption in a enterprise perspective. They describe prosumption as ‘worth co-creation’.

Tapscott and Williams[edit]

In 2006 Tapscott and Williams contributed by seeing prosumers as part of a brand new ‘wikinomic’ mannequin the place shoppers work voluntarily and routinely for companies.[42]

P.J Reʏ[edit]

Rey appears at social media customers and argues that they’re exploited in a Marxist sense as a result of they ‘produce worth for numerous web sites with out being immediately compensated with wages.’ [43]


  1. New media: a important introduction (2008) Lister.M, Dovey. J, Giddings.S , Taylor and Francis, London.
  2. Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Past (2008) Bruns. A, Peter Lang Publising, New York
  3. ab Filippo Vescovo (2013), “Prosumers & Web: an Empirical Research on the Use of How-to Contents.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, College of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
  4. abcd Philip Kotler (1986) ,”The Prosumer Motion : a New Problem For Entrepreneurs”, in NA – Advances in Client Analysis Quantity 13, eds. Richard J. Lutz, Provo, UT : Affiliation for Client Analysis, Pages: 510-513.
  5. ab Tabea Beyreuther, Christian Eismann, Sabine Hornung and Frank Kleemann (2013)’Prosumption of Social Context in Internet 2.0 ‘ in Clients at Work pp.223–252. [Online] Obtainable at: (Accessed: Three March 2015).
  6. Edward Comor (2010) ‘Contextualizing and Critiquing the Incredible Prosumer̊ː Energy, Alienation and Hegemony.’ in Essential Sociology. vol, 36. ed, David Fastenfest. Pages 10-13
  7. Fromm E (1955) The Sane Society. New York, NY: Rinehart and Winston.
  8. The Coming of Age of the Prosumer – material/56/4/379.full.pdf+html
  12. abcd Ritzer, G. ‘The Coming of Age of the Prosumer’ (2012) material/56/4/379.full.pdf+html
  13. Lazzarato, M. (1996). Immaterial labour. In M. Hardt & P. Virno (Eds.), Radical thought in Italy: A possible politics (pp. 133-147). Minneapolis: College of Minnesota Press
  14. Cova, B. & Dalli, D. (2009) ‘Working shoppers: the following step in advertising and marketing principle?’ material/9/3/315.full.pdf+html pp, 318/329.
  15. Cova, B. & Dalli, D. (2009) ‘Working shoppers: the following step in advertising and marketing principle?’ material/9/3/315.full.pdf+html pp, 326/7
  16. Cova, B. & Dalli, D. (2009) ‘Working shoppers: the following step in advertising and marketing principle?’ material/9/3/315.full.pdf+html pp, 318.
  17. Cova, B. & Dalli, D. (2009) ‘Working shoppers: the following step in advertising and marketing principle?’ material/9/3/315.full.pdf+html pp 319.
  18. Cova, B. & Dalli, D. (2009) ‘Working shoppers: the following step in advertising and marketing principle?’ material/9/3/315.full.pdf+html pp, 329.
  19. Cova, B. & Dalli, D. (2009) ‘Working shoppers: the following step in advertising and marketing principle?’ material/9/3/315.full.pdf+html pp 326.
  20. Apple (2014) ‘Apple-September Occasion 2014’
  21. Dhanapalan, S. (2007) ‘Introduction to Linux, Free Software program and Open Supply’
  22. ab Arvidsson, A. (2005). Manufacturers: A important perspective. Journal of Client Tradition, 5(2), 235-258.
  23. Valve Company (2014)
  24. Valve Company (2014)
  25. The Intersecting Roles of Client and Producer: A Essential Perspective on Co-production, Co-creation and Prosumption (2008). Humphreys. A and Grayson. Ok
  26. ab The Technological Society: Social Principle, McDonaldisation and the Prosumer. in ‘In Jacques Ellul and the Technological Society within the 21st Century. Philosophy of Engineering and Expertise’. Quantity 13, pp, 37.
  27. Jurgenson, N & Ritzer, G. (2010) Vol. 10.(1) ‘Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption. A great instance of this might be in Ikea cafeterias the place diners are inspired to clear their desk and return their tray to a delegated space. The character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’’. Pp, 18.
  28. Jurgenson, N & Ritzer, G. (2010) Vol. 10.(1) ‘Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption. The character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’’. Pp, 17.
  29. Ritzer, G., Dean, P. and Jurgenson, N. (2012). The Coming Of The Age Of The Prosumer. American Behavioural Scientist, 56(4), pp.379-398.
  30. Ritzer, G., Dean, P. and Jurgenson, N, (2012). The Coming of Age of the Prosumer. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(4), pp.379-398.
  31. Ritzer, G. and Jurgenson, N. (2010). Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption: The character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’. Journal of Client Tradition, 10(1), pp. 13-36.
  32. George Ritzer, Nathan Jurgenson (2010) “Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption: The character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’” in Journal of Client Tradition. Quantity 10, no. 1, pages 13-36.
  33. abcde Ritzer, G., Dean, P. and Jurgenson, N. (2012). The Coming Of The Age Of The Prosumer. American Behavioural Scientist, 56(4), pp.379-398.
  34. Allan, S. (2006) On-line Information. London: Open College Press, p. 152
  35. Hill, S. & Lashmar, P. (2014) On-line Journalism: The Important Information. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 144-145
  36. Salmon, F. 2011. The State of the Weblog, Columbia Journalism Evaluate. Obtainable: www.cjr.ord/the_audit/the_state_of_the_blog.php
  37. Toffler, A. (1980) The Third Wave. New York: William Morrow
  38. Ritzer, G. and Jurgenson, N. (2010). Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption: The character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’. Journal of Client Tradition, 10(1), pp. 17
  39. Jurgenson, N & Ritzer, G. (2010) Vol. 10.(1) ‘Manufacturing, Consumption, Prosumption. The character of capitalism within the age of the digital ‘prosumer’’.
  40. Pieter Verdegen & Shenja van de Graff (2014), From Participatory ‘Tradition to Prosumer Capitalism: Imaginaries of Transparency within the Age of Company Surveillance’ in Social Media and the Transformation of Public Area, Abstracts. pp100-101
  41. Prahalad C.Ok & Ramaswamy, V. ‘Co-Creation Experiences: The Subsequent Follow in Worth Creation’, JOURNAL OF INTERACTIVE MARKETING VOLUME 18 / NUMBER 3 / SUMMER 2004
  42. Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, 2007, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Modifications All the pieces, New York: Penguin
  43. Rey P.J. ‘Alienation, Exploitation and Social Media’, 2012 in ‘The Coming Age of the Prosumer’ ed. George Ritzer



The estrangement of individuals from features of their human nature on account of dwelling in a society stratified by social class.[1]


Branding is among the most vital features of any enterprise, giant or small, retail or B2B. An efficient model technique offers you a serious edge in more and more aggressive markets[2]


Citizen Journalist
A member of most of the people who collects, disseminates, and analyses information and knowledge.

Emphasis on the maximizing of revenue.

The motion of utilizing up a useful resource.

An financial and political system characterised by a free marketplace for items and providers and personal management of manufacturing and consumption.


It’s the abbreviation of Do-It-Your self. It refers to a person producing one thing on their very own with out professionals, in relation to prosumption it’s the particular person taking the function of a prosumer within the family.[3]


Important DIY
Atkinson referred to the type of Do-It-Your self that comes out of a necessity fairly than as an possibility.[4]





Immaterial labour/manufacturing, refers to actions which haven’t any bodily type. (e.g. advertising and marketing, promoting, and many others.)





Marxism is a worldview and methodology of societal evaluation that focuses on class relations and societal battle, that makes use of a materialist interpretation of historic growth, and a dialectical view of social transformation.[5]

Materials labour/manufacturing refers to actions which have a bodily engagement (e.g. the bodily manufacturing of a automotive, strolling spherical a store to gather objects of procuring, and many others.)

Time period that refers back to the sociological phenomenon meaning the rationalization of a course of that substitutes conventional guidelines for effectivity. Launched by George Ritzer in his ebook ‘The McDonaldisation of Society’ (1993).



Open-source software program
Open-Supply Software program denotes any software program for which the unique supply code is freely accessible and could also be re-distributed and modified.


Mix of producer and shopper, coined by futurologist Alvin Toffler in his ebook The Third Wave (1980).[6]

Present at or from the start of time; primeval.




Social Media
The place customers of internet sites come collectively on a platform to create and share content material with one another.[7]


The Third Wave
Outlined by Alvin Toffler to be an age of prosumption.[8]


Person-generated content material
Any type of on-line content material that was created by customers of a sure of an internet system or service. Examples embody digital photos and movies.



Internet 2.0
The time period given to explain a second era of the World Huge Internet that’s centered on the flexibility for individuals to collaborate and share info on-line.[9]




  2. Wialliams, J. The Fundamentals of Branding, retrieved: 04/03/2015
  3. Do-It-Your self [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In Merriam Webster On-line, Retrieved March 4, 2015, from
  4. Invalid tag; no textual content was offered for refs named Filippo Vescovo 2013
  6. Toffler, A. 1980, The Third Wave, London : Pan Books in affiliation with Collins
  7. Social Media [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In Merriam Webster On-line, Retrieved March 5, 2015, from
  8. Invalid tag; no textual content was offered for refs named kotler1986
  9. Beal, V. Internet 2.0,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *