Abstract

Vancouver has a comparatively intensive transit system that’s finest recognized for the Skytrain system. Skytrain consisted initially of raised tracks on which trains ran utilizing a system just like a typical subway. In subsequent expansions it additionally contains underground tunnels, with some at-grade sections; nonetheless it’s primarily a grade-separated type of mass transit. A transit resolution between central Vancouver and the College of British Columbia (UBC) is at the moment being thought of, with Skytrain being one of many major candidate modes. There are a selection of points which have arisen when planning this growth, and we current these points as a launching level for dialogue of common points when contemplating any transportation system. Specifically, we analyze completely different transit applied sciences and the governmental construction for possession and funding sources of the mass transit within the space. We have a look at a number of the tradeoffs a planner should make when designing a system and the stakeholders which might be concerned in such a mission.

Further Readings

Timeline

  • 1997 – The Vancouver Metropolis Council’s “Metropolis Transportation Plan” is authorised which features a speedy transit plan for the Broadway Hall
  • 2008 – British Columbia releases their Provincial Transit Plan, outlining plans for a variety of new developments together with a skytrain line connecting to the UBC.[1]
  • Could 21, 2010 – Part 1 of the UBC Line Speedy Transit Examine closed which consulted stakeholders and professionals to find out a listing of doable alternate options for the united statesLine.[2]
  • April 22, 2011 – Part 2 of the UBC Line Speedy Transit Examine closed which included consulted the general public opinion on 7 doable alternate options.[2]
  • TBA – Part Three of the UBC Line Speedy Transit Examine will begin. Utilizing the chosen transit choice a price range, a timeline, design growth and phasing will probably be created.

Narrative

Vancouver is the third largest metro space in Canada. It’s situated alongside the west coast of Canada with the Pacific to the west, the US to the south and the North Shore Mountains to the north.[3] The Vancouver space has seen speedy progress prior to now few years. It’s estimated that the metro space’s inhabitants will improve by about 50% by the 12 months 2041.[4] Due to the geographical constraints of the world a lot of this progress is going on via growing inhabitants density as an alternative in favor of accelerating developed land space. The expansion and density of the world over time has allowed for the event of an intricate mass transit system together with buses, ferries and lightweight rail transit.

Historical past of transit and governance in metropolitan Vancouver

Authentic transit system (streetcars)

Mass transit in Vancouver started within the early 1890s with the set up of electrical streetcars alongside 9 km of monitor within the metropolis middle. The system expanded quickly via WWI, and was important to residents affected by the Nice Melancholy needing a less expensive type of transport. The system was privately owned and operated by the British Columbia Electrical Railway (BCER).[5]

Electrical buses (trolley buses)

Motor buses have been used to complement streetcar service by the 1920s, however the comparatively low energy of diesel buses on the time resulted within the implementation of electrified bus (trolleybus) service. By 1955, the electrical streetcar fleet was retired and Vancouver possessed the biggest trolleybus fleet in Canada.

In 1961, the provincial authorities took over possession of the privately run transit system and created BC Hydro, a authorities owned Crown company.

In 1979, the provincial authorities created the City Transportation Authority, to ensure that native governments to have an elevated position in offering transit service. The UTA turned BC Transit in 1982, and in 1999, better Vancouver created the Better Vancouver Transportation Authority, later often called Translink, which now oversees the operation of all the transit system for the Vancouver area.[5]

Skytrain

Vancouver had been rethinking its strategy to massive scale mass transit because the retirement of the streetcar fleet within the 1950s. Worsening congestion within the metro Vancouver space, coupled with the town being awarded the 1986 World Exposition, which centered on Transportation and Communication Vancouver, gave the town the chance to construct its first type of speedy transit, Skytrain.[6]

The primary Skytrain line – the Expo Line – opened in 1985 and at the moment connects Vancouver to Surrey. The Millenium Line was added in 2002 and circulates Vancouver and the adjoining metropolis of Burnaby.[6] Probably the most just lately accomplished line, the Canada Line, was opened in 2009 connecting the Vancouver airport and the southern suburbs of Vancouver to the central transportation hub, and is at the moment Three years forward of ridership projections.[7] An extension of the Millenium Line, named the Evergreen Line, is at the moment starting development and is predicted to open in 2014/2015. This line will join the Millenium Line to the jap suburbs and terminate at Douglas Faculty.[8]

In 2010 the Skytrain system carried individuals for 347 million complete journeys and had a web income of about $244 million.[9] It makes use of a zone-based pricing scheme, the place journey inside a single zone prices $2.50, whereas crossing via all Three zones throughout a visit prices $5.00.[10]

UBC Line

The Broadway Hall connects Central Broadway with the College of British Columbia. The Central Broadway space is the second largest job middle within the Vancouver metro space whereas the College of British Columbia in Vancouver is without doubt one of the county’s largest faculties. There are 100,000 every day bus journeys taken alongside this hall which ends up in overcrowding and inconsistent timing. Throughout peak instances buses run alongside this route nearly each 90 seconds which provides to the already congested space.[2] An improve to the transit system alongside the Broadway Hall is severely wanted.

Annotated Checklist of Actors (Stakeholders)

Enterprise Pursuits

The final opinion of companies is that mass transit could be good for the general financial well being of the world, nonetheless the bulk are towards a Skytrain system. One of many most important arguments towards a Skytrain is the disruption attributable to development, which so as to be saved reasonably priced would seemingly use the cut-and-fill method. This system was used within the development of the Canada Skytrain line the place companies situated within the Cambie Road space ended up suing the provincial authorities for compensation for the financial losses suffered.[11] Companies worry comparable financial hardships and bankruptcies, which might seemingly happen if an underground Skytrain line have been to be constructed. One service provider, who went bankrupt in the course of the development of the Canada line, spoke at a public listening to stating “What’s occurring alongside right here is strictly what occurred on Cambie Road.”[11] This opinion is one held by the Enterprise and Residents Affiliation for Sustainable Transportation Alternate options (BARSTA), who additionally questioned the long run advantages of Skytrain on the UBC line, with one member stating “We wish to make some solutions about transit alternate options that might be finest for not solely bettering transit, however for respecting and enhancing our communities and native companies”.[11] The companies of the group favor cheaper transit choices that present extra entry to native companies, corresponding to gentle rail or improved busing.[12] By offering extra visibility to the native companies as a result of being at-grade there could be much less disconnect from the Broadway enterprise district than a extra separated system.

College of British Columbia

Nearly all of the customers of the present 99 line are College of British Columbia. Upgrading the transit on this line would decrease commuter instances for college kids and school. This mission would give college students who stay on campus a greater reference to the Vancouver space together with the worldwide airport. The College of Vancouver has been named some of the sustainable campuses in North America by the U.S. Sustainable Endowments Institute. Enhancing transit within the space would assist the hold the college on this record.[13]

Citizen Teams

SPEC

The British Columbia-based Society Selling Environmental Conservation (SPEC) was based in 1969 to deal with environmental points in British Columbia usually and concrete areas specifically. SPEC despatched out a press launch advocating for the reallocation of transportation funds away from freeway transportation tasks so as to broaden transit tasks within the metro Vancouver space. In a press launch from 2010, SPEC cites earlier years’ elevated carbon emissions and elevated per-capita gasoline gross sales as proof that the province is failing to fulfill their local weather change objectives. Since they declare 40% of carbon emissions are transportation associated, SPEC means that investing in transit will shift mode option to transit, thereby decreasing carbon emissions. SPEC additionally advocates for transit as a way to drive financial growth.[14]

Canadian Taxpayers Federation

The Canadian Taxpayers Federation is a citizen advocacy group that advocates for decrease taxes and better effectivity and accountability in authorities. In Vancouver, they’ve written in opposition of spending over $100 million on truthful gates at Skytrain stations as a way to fight fare evasion. Riders at the moment function on the dignity system and face a nice for not possessing a legitimate ticket. As a substitute, the CTF helps better fines and enforcement to scale back fare evasion and improve fare income. As well as, CTF opposes the excessive price of fuel taxes, significantly in British Columbia, the place fuel taxes are highest.[15][16]

Sustainable Transportation Coalition

An influential group of planners, architects, and environmentalists is campaigning to influence native and provincial governments to implement the funding measures vital to perform the objectives recognized in Metro Vancouver’s 2040 Plan. The Coalition is comprised of a variety of residents energetic in transportation points throughout the province, and is headed by Peter Ladner, a 2008 mayoral candidate for Vancouver.[17][18]

CUTA – Canadian City Transit Affiliation

The Canadian City Transit Affiliation is a commerce group that promotes transit infrastructure and the transit business as an entire inside Canada and believes in transits skill to contribute to high quality of life within the Canadian communities that transit serves. Its members consist of pros working or affiliated with the transit business. CUTA publishes a variety of reviews to advocate and promote transit in Canada, together with their “Transit Imaginative and prescient 2040” report, that identifies main themes in bettering transit effciency corresponding to bettering service and buyer relations, being environmentally and fiscally sustainable, and advancing help for transit in Canadian communities.[19]

Authorities Companies

Provincial Authorities

The federal government of British Columbia has been very concerned with the transit system of the metro Vancouver space. Translink was arrange by the province to carry collectively the municipal governments and native transit corporations and took over many transit operations beforehand held by the province. British Columbia has been one of many most important financiers of earlier transit tasks, together with Skytrain, and has used transit adjustments to fulfill its environmental objectives.[1]

Nationwide Authorities

The Canadian authorities has been supportive of the Skytrain system prior to now. It has contributed $1.1 billion {dollars} to the system via the Constructing Canada Fund, Public Transit Capital Belief and different federal funding applications. Nina Grewal, a member of Canadian Parliament, has stated “…Our authorities is proud to help environmentally sustainable municipal infrastructure, just like the Skytrain, which contributes to cleaner air and diminished greenhouse fuel emissions, bettering the surroundings and benefiting all Canadians,”.[20] Though the Canadian authorities could be supportive of any improve in mass transit that might lower emissions the federal authorities, the Skytrain system has been singled out by the federal authorities time and time once more as a result of it’s a massive scale, technologically superior mass transit choice.

Translink

In 2010, Translink acquired 32% of its income from transit charges, which was its largest single income.[9] Consequently, Translink has a robust curiosity in any tasks that might improve the revenue from transit fares because of enlargement of the system. A transit system would additionally seemingly improve the property values close to the road and alter client gasoline use which might impact Translink’s major sources of revenue (property and gasoline taxes, which comprise 45% of Translink’s income stream).[9] Along with having massive impacts on the potential income of the corporate, Translink would additionally must make a big preliminary funding within the line. Whereas the mission remains to be too early in growth to find out funding sources they’ve traditionally offered a big share of the funding for comparable tasks. For instance, for the Evergreen Line at the moment beneath development Translink has agreed to contribute $400-Million of the entire $1.4-Billion mission price, or about 29% of the entire.[21] Much less concretely, Translink is the first entity in planning and working the road, so any optimistic or unfavorable elements of the UBC Line will mirror most immediately on them. In consequence, Translink has a big stake within the success or failure of the mission and is much less involved about anybody explicit expertise.

Clear Identification of Coverage Points

Planning

Alternate options Evaluation

For many large-scale tasks an alternate evaluation, or a weighing of choices to acquire the aim most effectively, is carried out. Different analyses require a dedication of money and time from the stakeholder(s) funding the given mission. With out the analyses, the planning course of could be reasonably impractical. Within the case of the projected UBC line there was intensive different evaluation carried out. This has been funded by two stakeholders: Translink and the Province of British Columbia.[22]

The primary different proposed for the system is a Bus Speedy Transit line operating a linear route alongside Broadway. The buses would run alongside the middle of the road, with stations being situated within the median and linked by crosswalks. The road would provide entry to 3 completely different north-south operating bus strains. This selection is the least costly but in addition the slowest. The capital price of the BRT different is $350 million for the diesel buses, and $450 million for the trolley buses. These prices are lower than half of the opposite alternate options as a result of only a few infrastructure adjustments would have to be made. One-way journey time from finish to finish would take roughly 33 minutes. The proposed ridership for the BRT choice is 75,000 journeys per day. Proposed journeys per day for different alternate options are at 100,000 or extra.[23] This means that the BRT different could be insufficient given the demanded journey wants of the road.

There are two LRT alternate options. The primary LRT different contains two choices, labeled “A” and “B.” The A choice could be aligned on Broadway Ave for the whole lot of the road. This selection could be sooner than the B choice, which might loop as much as the VCC Clark Station and Nice Northern Method Campus. Choice A would most probably present service to UBC college students commuting to campus, whereas choice B would even be serving vacationers, buyers, and Nice Northern Method college students. The one-way journey journey time for choice A could be roughly 26 minutes and choice B could be 29 minutes. The capital prices for the A and B choices could be at $1.1 billion. The projected journeys per day for choice A is 99,000. and 109,000 for B.[23] This different suits in higher with the 100,000 journeys per day aim, though the capital and incremental prices being significantly bigger. Signaling precedence could be given to the LRT different, though this could solely reduce journey time by a couple of minutes.

The Second LRT different proposes extra stops, due to the B choice encompassing a bigger loop. The B choice route connects with the A on the Arbutus cease, about midway alongside the entire line. This different permits for elevated growth alongside Central Broadway and northward. Capital prices improve to $1.38 billion for the A choice, and $1.48 billion for the B choice. Every day projected ridership ranges keep about the identical for choice A as anticipated, however rise to 116,000 journeys per day within the prolonged choice B.[23]

RRT, or Rail Speedy Transit, is but another choice for the UBC line. The plan proposes tunneled RRT for a lot of the line, with solely a small portion of the road being elevated. This different poses two choices; with the routes being just like the beforehand proposed alternate options. Choice A would run completely underground. Choice B could be an extension of the Millennium Line, and would start elevated till reaching the Nice Northern Method campus. The capital prices for this different are massive, with choice A totaling $3.2 billion and choice B $2.9 billion. That is undoubtedly due to the swap of grades alongside the B route. Estimated ridership ranges are 137,000 for choice A, and 146,000 for choice B. Riders of those routes would expertise 20 minute journey instances one-way.[23]

There are two mixture alternate options with regard to RRT. The primary different being predominantly LRT, with tunneled RRT splitting off on the Arbutus cease. This different boasts the best potential ridership ranges, with every day estimates reaching 145,000 journeys. Due to the modal interchanges required, the journey time for this different would rise to 25-27 minutes. The capital price could be $2.Four billion. Infrastructure would have to be modified to permit for this different. Elevators or stairs could be vital for the tunnel or raised RRT.[23]

The opposite mixed different options BRT for all the Broadway line, with RRT (linked from the Millennium Line) operating parallel alongside Broadway till eventually an interchange to BRT should be made on the Arbutus cease. Capital price for this different could be $1.9 billion, with a lot of the price coming from the extension of the Millennium Line to Arbutus. The incremental working price could be $Four million. This different is predicted to serve 138,000 journeys per day. The one-way journey time could be elevated to 32 minutes alongside the road.[23] This different would doubtlessly relieve congestion due to its fascinating alignment. The multi-modal system of RRT and BRT would give riders decisions.

The ultimate different merely gives improved bus service between UBC and Industrial Broadway. Named “Greatest Bus Different,” the plan is to extend frequency on a number of routes between the 2 factors, in addition to present categorical bus service. Adjustments wanted to implement the Greatest Bus different are comparatively easy in comparison with the opposite alternate options. An elevated deployment of buses could be wanted, in addition to the availability of real-time schedules and elevated shelters. The journey time between UBC and Industrial Broadway could be roughly 30 minutes. The capital price of this different could be $325 million, with incremental working prices being $18 million. This different is the most affordable, best to deploy and best to keep up. The projected ridership stage, like the primary different, is at 75,000 journeys per day. That is nearly half that of the primary mixture different.[23]

Funding

As with every improve to a transit system, price is a vital subject and one of many most important elements within the resolution of the right way to repair the transit downside within the Broadway Hall. The seven choices outlined within the alternate options evaluation have prices various from $325 million to $3.2 billion in capital prices with the rail speedy transit choice being the most costly and the very best bus choice being the least.[2] Completely different funding choices are at the moment being checked out for the area together with federal and provincial funds, tax will increase and growing present transit fares.

Nearly all of the funding for giant transit tasks within the Vancouver space has come from completely different federal and provincial funding applications and Translink. These have been three of the 4 largest contributors to the $1.9 billion preliminary price of Skytrain’s Canada line with 22% federal cash, 12% provincial cash and 17% from Translink.[24] The opposite contributor was the worldwide airport which was a most important vacation spot on that line. These funding patterns are additionally the case for the upcoming Evergreen line due in 2014. It could be logical to imagine this may occur for comparable future tasks, such because the UBC line.

A rise in fuel taxes of two cents per liter is at the moment being proposed to assist fund the UBC line and different Translink tasks. This concept has been met with opposition from the general public. British Columbia already has the best fuel taxes of any Canadian province with 33.6% of the price of fuel being taxes whereas having the second highest complete price for gasoline. Including extra taxes would solely improve the hole between the second highest province, Quebec.[25]

Different methods to lift cash for this and different tasks within the Vancouver metro space have been steered and applied. The governor of Surrey, a metropolis situated south of Vancouver, has steered promoting the naming rights to completely different Skytrain stations to lift cash.[26] Others see growing property taxes and present transit fares as an choice. Upgrades to the present methods are additionally being checked out to extend ridership and funds. For instance, new fare gate methods are being put in within the present Skytrain stations which ought to assist cease fare jumpers.

Price Issues

The capital prices for transportation modes corresponding to streetcar, LRT and Skytrain are comparatively straightforward to find out as a result of the massive preliminary funding to construct the transportation infrastructure (tunnels and elevated tracks, autos, stations and so forth.) is usually tied on to the mission. Nevertheless, many prices related to private car, native bus service and to a lesser extent BRT and trolley bus are harder to find out as a result of they function on present roadways, the development and upkeep of which aren’t included in most price calculations for these modes.

Environmental Considerations

Research by main consultants point out that local weather change might impose important financial, social and environmental prices and trigger catastrophic harm. In 2008, the newest 12 months for which there are data, greenhouse gases elevated in BC regardless of a nationwide pattern of reducing emissions. 2009 noticed per-capita gasoline gross sales in BC rise nearly 10 p.c which was the biggest single-year improve for the province in no less than 30 years.

SPEC is looking on the province to reduce or cancel the numerous freeway enlargement tasks which might be both in course of or deliberate. This may unencumber properly over a billion {dollars} for public transportation, schooling and social applications

Laws now exists that requires municipalities and areas to rearrange land makes use of and transportation methods in a fashion that reduces greenhouse fuel (GHG) emissions (ie. British Columbia’s Greenhouse Gasoline Discount Targets Act). The usage of transit, which was heretofore thought of solely from the attitude of decreasing auto dependence and offering transportation fairness to the deprived, now has a broader mandate to assist governments meet their GHG targets.

Modes corresponding to LRT and Skytrain have very low exterior prices as a result of the infrastructure for a majority of these tasks typically must be constructed from scratch so the prices are already included of their greater preliminary capital prices. If most journeys within the area are quick then the rationale for funding in trams is overwhelming. If all journeys are lengthy then the rationale for the very costly Skytrain system should still maintain sway.

Public Security

Every of the 7 alternate options for the Broadway Hall transit improve comes with their very own set of security considerations. Buses, LRT, or another type of transit utilizing the identical grade as pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles will face a way forward for potential collisions. The choice for a separate-grade transportation system wouldn’t face these identical considerations, as they’ve their very own proper of method, in addition to inbuilt sensors that detect, and warn of, any obstacle alongside the monitor. Nevertheless, different security considerations concerning the lack of pure surveillance come up when contemplating under grade boarding stations. To appease such security considerations, Translink at the moment has its personal totally accredited police company known as the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service (hyperlink). This company could be concerned in whichever different is chosen to assist implement festivals, improve surveillance, and scale back crimes.

Aesthetics/Design

The completely different transit different designs may have an impact of the general look of the world. The Greatest Bus choice would solely improve the variety of busses on the present roadway whereas the Bus Speedy Transit choice would require two paved lanes of its personal. The sunshine rail choices would additionally require a lane for every path of sunshine rail site visitors however might be designed as grass tracks including some vegetation to the streets. This may be a visible reminder of the environmental advantages of sunshine rail. Each the Bus Speedy Transit choice and lightweight rail choices would require new cease areas, presumably with shelters, to be added to the world. Relying on the design these may both improve or scale back the aesthetics of the world. The three choices that comprise rail speedy use tunnels and wouldn’t disturb the roadway or aesthetics of the Broadway hall.[2]

Mission Future

The way forward for the transit within the Broadway Hall isn’t properly outlined. Another from the seven proposed choices will probably be chosen and included within the Translink 2045 report due out in August 2013.[27] No funding is being deliberate particularly for this mission however for the bigger Translink and Authorities funds and trusts that might seemingly be used to finance the mission. No timeline or deadlines for the mission have been set.

References

  1. ab Provincial Transit Plan. Rep. Ministry of Transportation, British Columbia, 2008. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [1].
  2. abcde “UBC Line Speedy Transit Examine – Part 2.” Translink.ca. Translink. Internet. 15 August 2011. [2].
  3. Meligrana, John F. “Towards Regional Transportation Governance: A Case Examine of Better Vancouver.” Transportation 26. 4 (1999): 359-398. Print. [3].
  4. “Future Inhabitants Development in Vancouver.” Vancouver.ca. Metropolis of Vancouver. Four August 2010. Internet. 15 August 2011. [4].
  5. ab “BC Transit Historical past.” BC Transit. British Columbia Transit Service. Internet. 17 Sept. 2011. [5].
  6. ab “Vancouver SkyTrain Community.” Railway Expertise. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [6].
  7. Nagel, Jeff. “Rise in Transit Use Known as Olympic Legacy.” BCLocalNews.com – Native Information. Surrey Chief, 10 Feb. 2011. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [7].
  8. Evergreen Line – Connecting Coquitlam to Vancouver through Port Moody. British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [8].
  9. abc “Translink 2010 Annual Report.” Translink. 16 Sept. 2011. [9].
  10. “Single Fares.” Translink. Translink. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [10].
  11. abc McElroy, Justin. “Kits. Residents Rally towards a UBC Skytrain Line.” The Ubyssey Pupil Newspaper. College of British Columbia. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [11].
  12. “BARSTA, Proposed Broadway Line, and Developments round Canada Line.” The Vancouver Observer. 16 Sept. 2011. [12].
  13. “UBC Line Key to Elevated Transit Ridership and Campus Sustainability.” www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca. College of British Columbia. 11 December 2008. Internet. 16 September 2011.[13]
  14. Society Selling Environmental Conservation. “SPEC Requires Transportation Reallocation” Press Launch. September 21, 2010. [14]
  15. Bader, Maureen “TransLink to spend $100-million to avoid wasting $6-million”. Canadian Taxpayer Federation. [15]
  16. CBC Information. “Gasoline tax highest in Vancouver: advocacy group.” Could 26, 2011. [16]
  17. Bula, Frances. “Transit advocates launch marketing campaign for provisional property-tax hike.” The Globe and Mail. September 11, 2011 [17]
  18. “The South Fraser Weblog: Help of Elevated Gasoline Tax and Different Funding Measures for TransLink.”
    [18]
  19. Canadian City Transit Affiliation. “Transit Imaginative and prescient 2040. Transferring Ahead: Imaginative and prescient to Motion. 2010 Progress Report Abstract” [19]
  20. “Federal Investments Assure Shiny Future for Skytrain.” Ninagrewal.ca. 17 August 2011. Internet. 16 September 2011. [20].
  21. Sinoski, Kelly. “Mayors Vote to Hike Gasoline Tax to Fund Evergreen Line.” The Vancouver Solar. The Vancouver Solar, 7 July 2011. Internet. 16 Sept. 2011. [21].
  22. “UBC Line Speedy Transit Examine Analysis Abstract.” Translink.ca. Translink. Internet. 11 April 2011. [22]
  23. abcdefg “UBC Line Speedy Transit Examine Design Information.” Translink.ca. Translink. Internet. March/April 2011. [23]
  24. “PM pledges $350M for Evergreen Speedy Transit Line.” Cba.ca. Canadian Bankers Affiliation. 26 February 2009. Internet. 15 September 2011. [24].
  25. Fildebrandt, Derek. “13th Annual Gasoline Tax Honesty Day Background Info.” Cba.ca. Canadian Taxpayer Federation. Could 2011. Internet. 16 September 2011. [25].
  26. Sinoski, Kelly. “Promote naming rights to Skytrain stations, says Surrey mayor.” The Vancouver Solar. 24 July 2011 ed. Internet. [26].
  27. “2012 Base Plan and Outlook.” Translink.ca. Translink. Internet. 16 September 2011.[27]


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