Det Norske Luftfartselskap A/S (actually “The Norwegian Aviation Firm”) or DNL, buying and selling internationally as Norwegian Air Traces,[1] was an airline and flag service of Norway. Based in 1927, it operated home and worldwide routes from 1935 to 1941 and from 1946 to 1951. It turned one of many three founders of Scandinavian Airways System (SAS) and have become one in every of its three holding firms from 1951, with a 28% stake and listed on the Oslo Inventory Trade. DNL was renamed SAS Norge ASA in 1996 and was merged in 2001 to create the SAS Group.

The corporate was based as Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen A/S in 1933, after Fred. Olsen & Co. took over the property of a failed airline with the identical identify from 1927. After taking up the incumbent Widerøe the next yr, permitting 5 different transport firms a partial possession and altering the corporate’s identify to Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen & Bergenske A/S, DNL began home seaplane routes based mostly at Oslo Airport, Gressholmen, and later Oslo Airport, Fornebu, utilizing Junkers Ju 52 plane. In 1935, DNL was near beginning transatlantic flights in cooperation with Pan Am, however providers by no means commenced regardless of buying a Sikorsky S-43. After the outbreak of World Conflict II, DNL ceased operations from 1941 to 1946.

From then, DNL began worldwide flights utilizing Douglas DC-Three and launched Quick Sandringhams on home sea routes. Together with Aerotransport of Sweden and Det Danske Luftfartselskab of Denmark, DNL based Abroad Scandinavian Airways System to pool transatlantic flights. In 1948, all of DNL’s providers have been re-branded as SAS and pooled by European Scandinavian Airways System. The corporate skilled 4 deadly accidents.

Historical past[edit]

Institution[edit]

The primary DNL was registered on Four Might 1927, with a share capital of NOK 6,500, with Arnold Ræstad and the principle shareholder. On 18 June, the share capital was raised to NOK 50,000, together with a 20% stake owned by the Municipality of Oslo and Norway Put up. On the time, the one service to Norway was Lufthansa, who operated from Gressholmen Airport in Oslo by way of Gothenburg and Copenhagen to Warnemünde in Germany. Each DNL and Norske Luftruter utilized for floor dealing with for Lufthansa at Gressholmen. This was granted to Norske Luftruter, however DNL was granted the concession to function the ferry to the island from Oslo East Station.[2]

In 1930, the federal government appointed a civil aviation fee, led by Admiral von der Lippe, to contemplate all elements of civil aviation in Norway. It concluded in 1932, and really helpful {that a} single, massive nationwide airline be established. The identical yr, the Municipality of Oslo and the Norwegian Ministry of Defence appointed a committee with the objective of constructing a civilian airport close to Oslo. It concluded in June, and really helpful that the airport be constructed at Fornebu. By 1934, development had began, though the airport wouldn’t open till 1 June 1939.[3]

On 1 September 1933, the Oslo-based transport firm Fred. Olsen & Co., owned by the brothers Thomas Fredrik Olsen and Rudolf Olsen, introduced their plans to determine a nationwide airline. The inspiration of the corporate was made on 16 October 1933, with Thomas Olsen, Rudolf Olsen, Johan L. Müller, Ganger Rolf and Bonheur—all throughout the Fred. Olsen sphere—as house owners. The airline was established with a share capital of NOK 750,000 and took over the previous DNL. The brand new firm was named Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen A/S and employed Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen—since 1921 director of the Civil Aviation Council—as managing director. The Olsen brothers and Müller have been all elected to the board. The corporate’s preliminary plans have been to realize the working rights for the airports which have been below development, together with Fornebu; Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik; and Stavanger Airport, Sola. The opposite was obtain a state grant to start out a service from Oslo, by way of Kristiansand, to Amsterdam in cooperation with KLM. Domestically, the airline wished to function the route from Oslo to Kristiansand and from Kristiansand to Stavanger, Bergen and Ålesund.[4]

An software was despatched the federal government, on the time Mowinckel’s Third Cupboard, with a proposal for a ten-year concessions utilizing land planes. Routes have been to start out off with a five-month service, and step by step improve to a full-year service from 1940. The corporate acknowledged that it wanted NOK 500,000 yearly in help from the state and Norway Put up for the service. In 1933, the brothers Viggo Widerøe and Arild Widerøe—who would discovered Widerøe in 1934—additionally utilized for routes in the identical areas, however utilizing sea planes on the route from Oslo by way of Kristiansand and Stavanger to Haugesund. Additionally Norske Luftruter utilized, however a three-year concession was granted to Widerøe. The federal government acknowledged that no airports had been constructed but, and wouldn’t be within the speedy future, so it was higher to start out with sea airplane providers.[5]

Riiser-Larsen went on a nationwide lecture tour to realize help for civil aviation from native politicians and businesspeople. He additionally negotiated agreements to pool flights to Sweden with Aerotransport, to Denmark with Det Danske Luftfartselskab, to Germany with Lufthansa and to the UK with Imperial Airways. By early 1934, DNL determined that they might as an alternative apply for preliminary seaplane routes utilizing two Waco Cabin. In the course of the debates in parliament, the minority governing Liberal Occasion was in favor of Widerøe-operated sea airplane routes, whereas the bulk opposition from the Agrarian Occasion and the Labor Occasion wished to extend investments in land airports.[6]

In 1933, Thomas S. Falck was appointed director of Bergenske Dampskibsselskab (BDS).[7] Fred. Olsen wished a associate for DNL, partially to strengthen its geographic unfold, and conferences have been held between Olsen household and Falck to introduce the Bergen-based firm as a associate in DNL. On 7 November 1934, Bergenske turned a associate in DNL, and the corporate renamed Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen og Bergenske A/S. Johan Wulfsberg from BDS turned a board member of DNL. As a reply to DNL’s new concession software to make short-term sea airplane routes utilizing a Junkers Ju 52, the federal government urged DNL to make an alliance or merger with Widerøe. By then, 4 regional transport firms—Vesterålske, Nordenfjeldske, Stavangerske and Arendalske—had purchased the vast majority of Widerøe.[8]

Falck took contact with the opposite 4 transport firms, and on 18 December the six transport firms agreed to merge their pursuits into DNL. Possession was cut up 40% by Fred. Olsen, 38% by Bergenske and 22% by the opposite 4 transport firms. Widerøe was initially deliberate to be both dissolved or take over the smaller seaplane routes. The state was permitted to nominate a member of the schedule planning committee. The corporate obtained a share capital of NOK 1.6 million.[9] DNL purchased 51% of Widerøe, and the airline continued with out scheduled providers, working air taxi, faculty and normal aviation, plus a restricted variety of submit routes in Northern Norway.[10]

On 16 March 1935, Mowinckel’s Third Cupboard was changed by the Labor Nygaardsvold’s Cupboard. They wished to stimulate the economic system by public investments, and determined that development of airports was to be accelerated. On 5 April, DNL was granted concession for a sea airplane route alongside the coast from Oslo to Tromsø, plus the worldwide route from Oslo by way of Kristiansand to Amsterdam. DNL obtained NOK 200,000 in state grants, plus NOK 100,000 from Norway Put up, for the primary yr of operation. DNL determined to buy a three-engine Junkers W 34. It was registered as LN-DAB on 1 June 1935 and named Ternen. Riiser-Larsen and Bernt Balchen have been employed to handle the corporate, whereas advertising and marketing and gross sales have been finished by Fred. Olsen.[11] Terje Rabben was employed to run the DNL operations from the bottom at Gressholmen.

Pre-war operations[edit]

To begin the route from Oslo to Bergen instantly, a Ju 52 was moist leased from Lufthansa. It was delivered on 7 June and initially saved the blue Lufthansa livery, together with a swastika. The plane was registered as LN-DAE, christened Havørn and later obtained DNL’s livery. Operations have been scheduled to begin on 7 June, however fog compelled a delay till 11 June. After that there have been flown 180 journeys with a 100% regularity. Coaching was finished by German crew on board Havørn. Journey time from Oslo to Bergen was 4 and a half hours, with intermediate stops in Moss, Arendal, Kristiansand, Stavanger and Haugesund. It price NOK 95 to fly the total journey. In the course of the first season, DNL transported 3,214 passengers and 31.6 tonnes (31.1 lengthy tons; 34.eight brief tons) of mail. It additionally took over Norwegian illustration for Aerotransport, DDL, KLM, Sabena, Air France and Aero, and joined the Worldwide Air Visitors Affiliation. On the finish of the yr, Havørn was bought. On 6 June 1936, DNL registered its second Ju 52, LN-DAF Najaden. After the Havørn Accident eleven days later, the airline bought one other Ju 52, LN-DAH Falken, used from Lufthansa.[12]

In 1936, DNL and Balchen—who had a variety of contacts within the US—began negotiations with Pan American Airways (Pan Am) about cooperation on a transatlantic route between Norway and the USA. DNL argued that Norway’s location made it a great base for the European flights to North America. Pan Am would function from New York to Reykjavík, whereas DNL would function the service from Reykjavík to Bergen and onwards to numerous locations in Europe. The contract was signed in March and DNL purchased a Sikorsky S-43 flying boat, registered as LN-DAG and christened Valkyrien. Nonetheless, after the plane was delivered and three weeks earlier than the route was to be inaugurated, Pan Am modified their thoughts, canceled the settlement and determined that the transatlantic route ought to as an alternative function by way of Newfoundland to Foynes in Eire, and by way of the Azores within the winter. Valkyrien was as an alternative used on home routes.[13]

In the course of the second season, DNL elevated the routes to additionally embrace Bergen–Tromsø and Tromsø–Honningsvåg. An evening submit route was flown from Oslo to Gothenburg. In the course of the 5 months of operation, the airline flew 339,116 kilometres (210,717 mi) and transported 2,300 passengers. From 1937, the state obtained the best to nominate two of the corporate’s eight board members. That yr additionally noticed DNL begin its first worldwide route, when Valkyrien was began the route between Oslo and Stockholm. A part of the rationale for the route was that transport to the Soviet Union couldn’t go by way of Germany, the place the one up to date worldwide flights from Oslo went. Nonetheless, the Stockholm-service was not worthwhile, and terminated on 31 July. Stavanger Airport, Sola opened on 30 Might, however with solely a single land airport, no routes have been began by DNL. In cooperation with DDL, Lufthansa and ABA, DNL entered the pool that flew the route from Oslo by way of Gothenburg to Copenhagen.[14]

On 2 March 1938, the board of DNL determined to promote Valkyrien to Chargeurs Reunis and abandon plans for intercontinental site visitors. As a substitute, negotiations began with Aer Rianta of Eire, who have been cooperating with Pan Am on the transatlantic route; DNL, DDL, Aero and Aerotransport deliberate to start out a route from Foynes by way of Stavanger, Oslo and Stockholm to Moscow.[15] Nonetheless, Pan Am determined to maneuver the path to the Azores when it commenced in 1939 and DNL’s Shannon-plans have been terminated. Following this, the Nordic airways began negotiating the potential for cooperating on their very own transatlantic route by way of Iceland and Newfoundland. In 1940, a delegation was despatched to the USA, the place it negotiated the mandatory permissions from the American authorities and buy rights for plane. After the break-out of World Conflict II, the USA had change into extra all for a northern transatlantic route, so it may attain the impartial Scandinavian international locations.[16]

Oslo Airport, Fornebu opened on 1 June 1939, and later the identical month so did Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik. DNL had made preparations to pool the operations from Oslo by way of Kristiansand to Amsterdam with KLM. The route was initially operated with a Douglas DC-2, leased from KLM. DNL had mentioned cooperating with British Airways and lengthening the Amsterdam-route to London, however this was not finished.[17]

World Conflict II[edit]

After the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940, all worldwide routes and operations in Southern Norway have been terminated. Two plane have been requisitioned by the German forces and despatched to Germany. A restricted service was saved in Northern Norway throughout the resistance, but additionally these have been terminated after the German forces took management of the entire nation. From 26 September, three weekly providers have been operated from Trondheim to Tromsø, with two of those persevering with to Kirkenes, utilizing Najaden. This was terminated on 20 March, after most of DNL’s pilots had fled to the UK to help the allied forces.[18]

The airline suffered from a normal distrust each from the German and Allied authorities. The Germans usually didn’t belief any shipowners, since these had their fleet organized in Nortraship and utilized in Allied convoys. The Norwegian authorities in exile have been additionally distrustful of DNL, as a result of the airline had taken initiative to function a route, basically serving to the German forces. There was additionally an uncertainty as as to whether the nationwide airline of Norway ought to proceed to be non-public, or if a state-owned airline needs to be established. To have a look at the difficulty, the Norwegian authorities-in-exile established the Norwegian Civil Aviation Board to take a look at all issues relating to civil aviation. It was this board which was permitted to barter site visitors rights with different international locations, make buy rights of plane and took part within the basis of the Worldwide Air Transport Affiliation and the Worldwide Civil Aviation Group. The Swedish intercontinental airline, Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik managed to buy ten Douglas DC-Four on the finish of the conflict; they’d initially deliberate on promoting some to DDL and DNL, however weren’t permitted to barter any agreements with DNL.[19][20]

Reestablishment[edit]

After the liberation of Norway on eight Might 1945, the Norwegian Civil Aviation Board began to provoke operations of civilian airliners. For 1945, the duty was given to the Royal Norwegian Air Power, who used surplus plane to function a restricted variety of routes. On the identical time, Thomas Olsen and Thomas Falck began mobilizing amongst shipowners and different businesspeople to boost capital for DNL, whereas on the identical time making an attempt to make sure the employment of navy pilots, navigation officers and different individuals with aviation competence. Egil Gløersen was despatched to the USA to review the operations of United Airways and Northwest Airways. On a gathering on 17 July, Norway’s 9 largest transport firms agreed to boost NOK 15 to 20 million in share capital, and the corporate to affix IATA.[21]

The duty of constructing a advice for a everlasting answer for the nationwide airline was given to a brand new Civil Aviation Board, which had Falck as a board member. They got here with their advice on 28 November 1945, which favored a single, privately owned Norwegian flag service, with a broad possession, who would obtain a concession for the operation of all home and worldwide routes. Following the 1945 Norwegian parliamentary election on eight October, the Labor Occasion obtained a majority, with 76 of 150 seats. Additionally the Norwegian Communist Occasion did its finest election ever, receiving 11 seats. A proposition was made by the Ministry of Protection on 18 January 1946, and despatched to parliament. It mentioned a number of choices, reminiscent of making a authorities company or a state-owned restricted firm, allowing a number of airways to function the totally different routes, and seemed on the chance that the shipowners have been buying DNL shares to hinder competitors with their transport traces. It concluded with a component non-public, half state-owned firm was most popular, and that the state can buy shares for NOK 5 million. Whereas the Labor Occasion on the time was in favor of nationalization, the proposition acknowledged that this was a chance to restrict the state’s spending of dearly wanted capital.[22]

By then, the Civil Aviation Board had procured two DC-Four for NOK 7.7 million, which might be transferred to DNL. From 21 January, an interim board was appointed for DNL, led by Falck. When the proposition reached parliament, it was determined that the share capital within the firm needs to be raised to between NOK 25 and 30 million to insure extra house owners, for the reason that authentic NOK 15 million had already been bought. The cupboard was additionally granted permission to at their discretion buy shares for an addition NOK 5 million. A 20-year concession was granted to DNL by parliament on 15 February.[23]

In February, DNL procured a four-story constructing in Oslo Metropolis Heart, and continued and a hangar at Fornebu. The corporate began to accumulate places of work within the varied cities it was going to serve; inside just a few weeks of parliament’s resolution, DNL had 300 staff, and by June it reached 1,500, with a mean age of 27 years. The corporate had ordered three Douglas DC-Three and two DC-4. On 27 March, public gross sales of shares began, which raised a further NOK 3.7 million from 1,900 purchasers. Complete share capital was NOK 25.2 million, with the state proudly owning 20%, Fred. Olsen and Bergenske 10% every. In whole, 49% of the shares have been owned by transport firms, 19.5% by banks, insurance coverage, commerce and industrial firms, and 12% by people. No less than 75% of the corporate needed to be owned by the state, Norwegian residents or firms managed by Norwegians.[24]
All the key transport firms supported DNL with capital, besides Wilh. Wilhelmsen, who wished to deal with transport, and Ludvig G. Braathen, who based his personal airline, Braathens SAFE, which was meant to be a constitution airline, and later turned SAS’s foremost Norwegian competitor.[25]

Det Norske Luftfartselskap A/S was based on 2 July 1946; it took the identify, a part of the personnel and the agreements and preparations DNL had. Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen & Bergenske was purchased by Fred. Olsen, and have become Fred Olsen Air Transport (Fred. Olsen Flyselskap). That firm obtained the rights to hunt compensation for any requisitions and different prices incurred by the German invasion.[26]

Put up-war operations[edit]

Falken has been preserved and is now the world’s oldest airworthy Junkers Ju 52, albeit flying in Lufthansa livery

Passengers boarding a Norwegian Air Traces (DNL) Douglas DC-Three at Fornebu airport, Oslo in 1946.

Operations began on 1 April 1946, from Oslo to Copenhagen. Eight days later, the route from Oslo by way of Stavanger to London opened, and on 15 April from Oslo to Stockholm, and on the identical day, among the Copenhagen routes began stopping in Gothenburg. the path to Copenhagen was prolonged from Copenhagen to Zürich and Marseille on 29 April. On 22 Might, 13 individuals have been killed in an accident at Fornebu. The primary home route, from Trondheim to Tromsø, opened on 27 Might, adopted by a route from Tromsø to Kirkenes on 13 October. In October, a number of new routes opened, together with the reopening of the Stockholm route by way of Örebro and Karlstad in Sweden, to Kristiansand by way of Amsterdam and Brussels to Paris, from Bergen by way of Haugesund and Stavanger to Kristiansand, an extension of the Copenhagen path to Prague, and at last from Oslo to Stavanger. In 1946, DNL transported 47,112 passengers.[27]

The preliminary postwar fleet consisted of six Douglas DC-3, all transformed from navy C-47. 5 Junkers Ju 52 seaplanes have been used, based mostly on ten plane left by the German forces. Two of those, Najaden and Falken (renamed Veslefrikk and Askeladden, respectively), had been utilized by DNL earlier than the conflict. On 16 July, the board determined to buy three Sandringham Mark VI flying boats from Quick Brothers. There have been inside protests towards the acquisition of the Sandringhams, since they have been thought to be unsuited for Norway. They incurred excessive working prices and all three of the unique plane crashed inside 4 years. The land DC-3s have been used on worldwide routes, whereas the ocean planes have been used on home routes.[28]

Abroad Scandinavian Airways System[edit]

Route map of OSAS after the institution

Negotiations between DNL, DDL and Aerotransport to consolidate their transatlantic operations began on 2 February 1946. Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik had began providers from Stockholm to New York, however a consortium was mentioned whereby the three airways would pool their operations to create economic system of scale.[29] Disagreement existed over which airport needs to be used as a hub. The Swedish authorities didn’t need to take part with lower than a 50% share, and ideally as a majority proprietor. It was acknowledged that this was as a result of they’d half the inhabitants and the one group able to working intercontinental routes. On 1 August, Abroad Scandinavian Airways System was established, the place DNL obtained a 2/7 possession. The consortium obtained its head workplace in Stockholm, however would additionally serve Copenhagen and Oslo with intercontinental flights.[30]

The settlement meant that DNL needed to switch staff to Stockholm and the airline made its two DC-Four plane obtainable for SAS.[31] To start with, Oslo obtained one of many two weekly providers to Gander and New York,[32] however all site visitors from Norway needed to switch in Copenhagen for the service to South America.[33][34]

In 1946, Norwegian ship-owner Ludvig G. Braathen had set up Braathens SAFE, and began constitution site visitors, primarily to Asia. From 14 January 1949, Braathens SAFE obtained a five-year concession to function a route from Oslo to numerous cities in Asia. This compelled OSAS to plan its Asia-routes utilizing solely Swedish and Danish crew and planes, and never function from Oslo.[35] This was adopted by SAS on 26 October, once they opened a DC-6 path to Bangkok with seven intermediate stops. At first there have been two spherical journeys monthly, however from 1950 this was elevated to 2 per week.[36]

European Scandinavian Airways System[edit]

The SAS cooperation initially solely thought-about intercontinental site visitors, and the three nationwide airways continued to compete on inter-Scandinavian and European site visitors. All three have been represented with gross sales places of work in every of the opposite international locations, and all three maintained gross sales places of work in all overseas cities they served. Casual discussions to pool worldwide routes began in 1947, in any case three firms had suffered losses on these routes. After SILA and Aerotransport merged, negotiations began between the three. The model identify “Scandinavian Airways System” was for use on all flights, home and worldwide, and the airways would coordinate their providers to keep away from parallel flights. Home scheduling would stay on the discretion of every nationwide airline. DNL would then shut its Swedish and Danish places of work, and retain Scandinavian places of work in different European cities. The pool settlement, which turned referred to as European Scandinavian Airways System (EASA), was taken into use on 18 April 1948.[37]

Per M. Backe turned CEO of OSAS, and was changed by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen. ESAS had two opposing objectives: to function the associate’s plane alongside the three–2–2 ratio, and function them most rationally. Due to the un-unified fleet composition, these have been usually not doable to mix. DNL misplaced NOK 17 million in 1948, partially as a result of it had the least environment friendly plane and obtained no compensation for its greater working prices. To stay liquid, DNL obtained NOK 35 in capital from the state by loans.[38]

Whereas ESAS proved worthwhile for Aerotransport and DDL, it turned a burden for DNL. The previous two had a a lot nearer overlap between their routes, whereas DNL had operated with out direct competitors with the opposite two on most of its routes. As a substitute of coordinating sources, ESAS had change into one other administrative degree; there have been additionally considerations from Norway that administrative and operative employees have been leaking to the ESAS head workplace in Copenhagen and the OSAS head workplace in Stockholm, with none related build-up of competence in Norway. Due to the way in which the prices have been divided between the pool companions, DNL was additionally receiving smaller margins that the others.[39]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 17 June 1936, the Havørn Accident turned the primary deadly air crash of a civil airliner in Norway. The Junkers Ju 52 Havørn, en route from Bergen to Tromsø, crashed right into a mountain wall, hidden behind a cloud, at Lihesten in Sogn, killing all seven on board, together with the crew of three.[40]
  • On 26 Might 1946, a DNL Junkers Ju 52 from Oslo en path to Stockholm crashed into the homes at Halden Terrasse close to Oslo Airport, Fornebu after take-off, because of a technical error on the plane. 13 of fourteen individuals on board have been killed.[41][42][43]
  • On 28 August 1947, the Kvitbjørn Accident with a Sandringham killed 36 individuals, after the plane crashed into the mountain Klubben.[44][45]
  • On 2 October 1948, the Bukkene Bruse Accident with a Sandringham killed 19 individuals whereas touchdown at Trondheim Airport, Hommelvik.[44][46]
  • On 15 Might 1950, Bamse Brakar sank after takeoff from Harstad. No-one was killed, however the Quick Sandringham sank after one hour.[44][47]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “DNL – Det Norske Luftfartselskap”. Airline Timetable Pictures. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  2. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 39–40
  3. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 41–42
  4. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 42–45
  5. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 45–57
  6. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 58–63
  7. ^ Thowsen, Atle. “Thomas Scheen Falck”. In Helle, Knut (ed.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  8. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 64–65
  9. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 65–67
  10. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 80–81
  11. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 71–75
  12. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 75–80
  13. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 83–87
  14. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 87–90
  15. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 93
  16. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 98–102
  17. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 105–110
  18. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 119–120
  19. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 120–130
  20. ^ Buraas (1972): 33–46
  21. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 132–135
  22. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 135–140
  23. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 142–145
  24. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 147–152
  25. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 137
  26. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 154
  27. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 152–156
  28. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 157–158
  29. ^ Buraas (1972): 49–51
  30. ^ Buraas (1972): 62–67
  31. ^ Buraas (1972): 68–73
  32. ^ Buraas (1972): 68–70
  33. ^ Buraas (1972): 71–73
  34. ^ Det Norske Luftfartselskap. “Flyruter”. Airline Timetable Pictures. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  35. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 209–212
  36. ^ Buraas (1972): 99
  37. ^ Buraas (1972): 74–83
  38. ^ Buraas (1972): 81–88
  39. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 215–216
  40. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 80
  41. ^ Wisting, 1989: 48
  42. ^ Nerdrum (1986): 152
  43. ^ “26 Might 1946”. Aviation Security Community. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  44. ^ a b c Nerdrum (1986): 160
  45. ^ “28 Aug 1947”. Aviation Security Community. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  46. ^ “2 Oct 1948”. Aviation Security Community. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  47. ^ “15 Might 1950”. Aviation Security Community. Retrieved 1 March 2010.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Buraas, Anders (1972). Fly over fly: Historien om SAS (in Norwegian). Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. ISBN 82-05-00891-4.
  • Nerdrum, Johan (1986). Fugl fønix: En beretning om Det Norske Luftfartselskap (in Norwegian). Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. ISBN 82-05-16663-3.
  • Wisting, Tor (1989). Oslo lufthavn Fornebu 1939–1989 (in Norwegian). TWK-forlaget. ISBN 82-90884-00-1.

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]


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