Etymology 1[edit]

From Center English holden, from Outdated English healdan, from Proto-Germanic *haldaną (to have a tendency, herd), perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to drive) (examine Latin celer (fast), Tocharian B kälts (to goad, drive), Historic Greek κέλλω (kéllō, to drive), Sanskrit कलयति (kaláyati, he impels)).[1][2] Cognate to West Frisian hâlde, Low German holden, holen, Dutch houden, German halten, Danish and Norwegian Bokmål holde, Norwegian Nynorsk halda.


maintain (third-person singular easy current holds, current participle holding, easy previous held, previous participle held or (archaic) holden)

  1. (transitive) To know or grip.

    Maintain the pencil like this.

    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter 1, in The Novice Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], OCLC 752825175:

      However then I had the flintlock by me for cover. ¶ There have been giants within the days when that gun was made; for certainly no fashionable mortal may have held that mass of metallic regular to his shoulder. The linen-press and a chest on the highest of it fashioned, nevertheless, an excellent gun-carriage; and, thus mounted, intention might be taken out of the window [].

    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 23, in The Mirror and the Lamp:

      The slightest effort made the affected person cough. He would stand leaning on a stick and holding a hand to his facet, and when the paroxysm had handed it left him shaking.

    • 2013 September-October, Henry Petroski, “The Evolution of Eyeglasses”, in American Scientist:

      The power of a phase of a glass sphere to enlarge no matter is positioned earlier than it was recognized across the 12 months 1000, when the spherical phase was referred to as a studying stone, []. Scribes, illuminators, and students held such stones instantly over manuscript pages as an assist in seeing what was being written, drawn, or learn.

  2. (transitive) To comprise or retailer.

    This bundle holds six bottles.

  3. (heading) To keep up or preserve to a place or state.
    1. (transitive) To have and preserve possession of one thing.

      Maintain my coat for me.  The final ordered the colonel to maintain his place in any respect prices.

      • 2011 December 14, Angelique Chrisafis, “Rachida Dati accuses French PM of sexism and elitism”, in Guardian[1]:

        She was Nicolas Sarkozy’s pin-up for range, the primary Muslim girl with north African dad and mom to maintain a significant French authorities submit. However Rachida Dati has now turned on her personal occasion elite with such ferocity that some have instructed she needs to be expelled from the president’s ruling occasion.

    2. (transitive) To order.

      Maintain a desk for us at 7:00.

    3. (transitive) To trigger to attend or delay.

      Maintain the elevator.

    4. (transitive) To detain.

      Maintain the suspect on this cell.

    5. (intransitive, copulative) To be or stay legitimate; to use (often within the third individual).

      to maintain true;  The proposition holds.

      • 1691, [John Locke], Some Issues of the Penalties of the Decreasing of Curiosity, and Elevating the Worth of Cash. [], London: [] Awnsham and John Churchill, [], revealed 1692, OCLC 933799310:

        The rule holds in land in addition to all different commodities.
    6. (intransitive, copulative) To maintain oneself in a selected state.

      to maintain agency

      • 1922, Ben Travers, chapter 2, in A Cuckoo within the Nest[2]:

        Mom [] thought-about that the exclusiveness of Peter’s circle was due to not its distinction, however to the truth that it was an inside Babylon of prodigality and whoredom, from which each and every Kensingtonian held aloof, besides on the traditional tip-and-run excursions in pursuit of buying, tea and theatres.

    7. (transitive) To impose restraint upon; to restrict in movement or motion; to bind legally or morally; to restrict; to restrain.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, The Life and Loss of life of King John (Act iv, scene 2):

        We can not maintain mortality’s sturdy hand.

      • 1646, Richard Crashaw, Vpon the Loss of life of Mr. Herrys
        Loss of life! what do’st? O, maintain thy blow.
      • 1856 February, [Thomas Babington] Macaulay, “Oliver Goldsmith [from the Encyclopædia Britannica]”, in T[homas] F[lower] E[llis], editor, The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay, re-creation, London: Longman, Inexperienced, Reader, & Dyer, revealed 1871, OCLC 30956848:

        He hath not adequate judgment and self-command to maintain his tongue.

    8. (transitive) To bear, carry, or handle.

      He holds himself proudly erect.  Maintain your head excessive.

      • 1595, William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Evening’s Dream:

        Let him maintain his fingers thus, and thru that cranny shall Pyramus and Thisby whisper .

    9. (intransitive, mainly crucial) To not transfer; to halt; to cease.
      • 1606, William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Macbeth:

        Lay on, Macduff, and damned him that first cries maintain, sufficient!

    10. (intransitive) To not give manner; to not half or turn into separated; to stay unbroken or unsubdued.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra:

        Our pressure by land hath nobly held.

    11. To stay continent; to regulate an excretory bodily operate.

      to maintain one’s bladder;  to maintain one’s breath

  4. (heading) To keep up or preserve to specific opinions, guarantees, actions.
    1. (transitive) To keep up, to contemplate, to opine.
      • 1776, Thomas Jefferson et al., United States Declaration of Independence:
        We maintain these truths to be self-evident, that each one males are created equal, that they’re endowed by their Creator with sure unalienable Rights, that amongst these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
      • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 1, in The Superstar:

        Within the outdated days, to my commonplace and unobserving thoughts, he gave no evidences of genius in anyway. He by no means learn me any of his manuscripts, […], and due to this fact my lack of detection of his promise might in a point be pardoned. However he had then not one of the oddities and mannerisms which I maintain to be inseparable from genius, and which struck my consideration in after days once I got here in touch with the Superstar.

    2. (transitive) To bind (somebody) to a consequence of his or her actions.

      He was held answerable for the actions of these below his command.  I am going to maintain him to that promise.

    3. To keep up in being or motion; to hold on; to prosecute, as a course of conduct or an argument; to proceed; to maintain.
      • Maintain not thy peace, and be not nonetheless.
      • 1667, John Milton, Paradise Misplaced, E-book II:

        Seedtime and harvest, warmth and hoary frost, / Shall maintain their course.

    4. To just accept, as an opinion; to be the adherent of, brazenly or privately; to persist in, as a goal; to take care of; to maintain.
    5. (archaic) To restrain oneself; to chorus; to carry again.
      • 1685, John Dryden, Threnodia Augustalis: A Funeral Pindaric Poem:

        His dauntless coronary heart would fain have held / From weeping, however his eyes rebelled.

  5. (tennis, transitive, intransitive) To win one’s personal service recreation.
  6. To happen, to happen.
    • 1824, James Hogg, The Non-public Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, Oxford 2010, p. 9:
      He got here into the corridor the place the wedding-festival had held […].
  7. To organise an occasion or assembly (often in passive voice).

    Elections will probably be held on the primary Sunday of subsequent month.

    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 5, in The Mirror and the Lamp:

      Right here, within the transept and choir, the place the service was being held, one was aware each second of an rising brightness; colors glowing vividly beneath the round chandeliers, and the rows of small lights on the choristers’ desks flashed and sparkled in entrance of the boys’ faces, deep linen collars, and purple neckbands.

  8. (archaic) To derive proper or title.
  9. (crucial) In a meals or drink order at a casual restaurant and so forth., requesting {that a} part usually included in that order be omitted.

    One ham-and-cheese sandwich; maintain the mustard.

    A martini, please, and maintain the olive.

  10. (slang, intransitive) To be in possession of illicit medication on the market.
    • 1933, Goat Laven, Tough Stuff: The Life Story of a Gangster (web page 122)
      [] very first thing purchasers would say to me can be ‘Are you holding?’ I might say sure if we had our provide and no if it was harmful.
Derived phrases[edit]
The translations beneath must be checked and inserted above into the suitable translation tables, eradicating any numbers. Numbers don’t essentially match these in definitions. See directions at Wiktionary:Entry structure § Translations.


maintain (plural holds)

  1. A grasp or grip.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt’s Sufferers:

      Outdated Applegate, within the stern, simply set and checked out me, and Lord James, amidship, waved each arms and stored hollering for assist. I took a few eternal large strokes and managed to seize maintain of the skiff’s rail, near the strict.

    Hold a agency maintain on the handlebars.
  2. An act or occasion of holding.
    Can I’ve a maintain of the infant?
  3. A spot the place animals are held for security
  4. An order that one thing is to be reserved or delayed, limiting or stopping how it may be handled.
    Senator X positioned a maintain on the invoice, then went to the library and positioned a maintain on a e-book.
  5. One thing reserved or stored.
    Now we have a maintain right here for you.
  6. Energy over somebody or one thing.
    • 2008, Christopher Clarke-Milton, Daybreak of the Messiah – E-book 1, →ISBN, web page 199:

      The Decide accepts the cost, the legislation not has a maintain on you, and due to this fact you’re free to stroll out of the court docket a free man or girl.

    • 2013, Wim Wenders & Mary Zournazi, Inventing Peace: A Dialogue on Notion, →ISBN, web page 107:

      Battle has a maintain on our cultural imaginations as an inevitable pressure, it’s peace that has no benefactor.

  7. The power to persist.
    • 1982, Laurence Monroe Klauber & Karen Harvey McClung, Rattlesnakes, Their Habits, Life Histories, and Affect, →ISBN, web page 48:

      Regardless of their seemingly sturdy maintain on life, as indicated by the persistence of motion in decapitation checks, rattlers are comparatively frail creatures and are simply killed.

  8. The property of sustaining the form of styled hair.
    • 2004, Zoe Diana Draelos, Hair Care: An Illustrated Dermatologic Handbook, web page 221:

      Sculpturing gels present stiffer maintain than styling gels, which offer higher maintain than mousses.

  9. (wrestling) A place or grip used to regulate the opponent.
    He obtained him in a good maintain and pinned him to the mat.
  10. (train) An train involving holding a place for a set time
  11. (playing) The proportion the home wins on a chance, the home or bookmaker’s maintain.
    • 2002, Actuality, “The Scorecard For Bookmakers”, in (Please present the e-book title or journal identify)[3], retrieved 2013-12-18:

    The Home Maintain on the sport is 10,000, that is the quantity of resolution or danger the home needs to imagine.
  12. (playing) The wager quantity, the full maintain.
    • 2012, Sarah Fortnum, “Melbourne Cup 2012 From The Bookie’s Perspective”, in (Please present the e-book title or journal identify)[4], retrieved 2013-12-18:

    As of Monday evening the full Melbourne Cup maintain was $848,015
  13. (tennis) An occasion of holding one’s service recreation, versus being damaged.
  14. The a part of an object one is meant to understand, or something one can use for greedy with palms or ft.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, Moonfleet Chapter 4
      So I felt my manner down the passage again to the vault, and recked not of the darkness, nor of Blackbeard and his crew, if solely I may lay my lips to liquor. Thus I groped concerning the barrels until close to the highest of the stack my hand struck on the spile of a keg, and drawing it, I obtained my mouth to the maintain.
    • 1995, Turlough Johnston & Madeleine Halldén, Rock Climbing Fundamentals, →ISBN, web page 86:

      The newbie will instinctively attempt to stick his toe straight in in a foot maintain, which could be very tiring on the calf muscle tissues.

  15. A fruit machine characteristic permitting a number of of the reels to stay fastened whereas the others spin.
  16. (video video games, dated) A pause facility.
    • 1983, New Era Software program, Knot in 3D (online game instruction leaflet)
      A maintain facility is accessible; H holds, and S restarts.
    • 1987?, Think about Software program, Legend of Kage (online game instruction leaflet)
      SCREEN 5 — Maybe the hardest — going just like the clappers typically works however typically you may must be smarter than that. If issues get just a little too hectic and you do not even have time to succeed in the HOLD key, strive taking a brief relaxation beneath the highest of the steps.
  17. The queueing system on telephones and comparable communication techniques which maintains a connection when all strains are busy.
    • 2003, Daniel Jackson, Paul Fulberg, Sonic Branding: An Important Information to the Artwork and Science of Sonic Branding, Palgrave Macmillan →ISBN, web page 6
      Given that there’s a mean on-hold time of greater than 5 minutes whereas enquiries are being handled, the phone maintain system supplied the most effective alternative.
    • 2005, Lorraine Grubbs-West, Classes in Loyalty: How Southwest Airways Does it : an Insider’s View, CornerStone Management Inst →ISBN, web page 56
      Even the “on-hold” messages on Southwest’s phone system are humorous, guaranteeing anybody inconvenienced by the maintain is entertained.
    • 2012, Tanner Ezell, Cisco Unified Communications Supervisor 8: Knowledgeable Administration Cookbook, Packt Publishing Ltd →ISBN
      Observe. After the gadget downloads its new configuration file, we will take a look at inserting a name on maintain and the generic maintain music will probably be heard.
  18. (baseball) A statistic awarded to a reduction pitcher who shouldn’t be nonetheless pitching on the finish of the sport and who data a minimum of one out and maintains a lead for his crew.
  19. (aviation) A area of airspace reserved for plane being stored in a holding sample.

(train): isometric train

Derived phrases[edit]
The translations beneath must be checked and inserted above into the suitable translation tables, eradicating any numbers. Numbers don’t essentially match these in definitions. See directions at Wiktionary:Entry structure § Translations.

See additionally[edit]

Loading bales of wool into the maintain of the barque “Magdalene Vinnen”, Sydney 1933


  1. ^ Robert Ok. Barnhart, ed., Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, s.v. “hold¹” (1988; reprint, Chambers, 2008), 486.
  2. ^ D.Q. Adams, “Drive”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Tradition (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), 170.

Etymology 2[edit]

Alteration (because of maintain) of gap. Cognate with Dutch hol (gap, cave, den, cavity, cargo maintain).


maintain (plural holds)

  1. (nautical, aviation) The cargo space of a ship or plane (usually holds or cargo maintain).
    Put that within the maintain.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Center English maintain, holde, from Outdated English maintain (gracious, pleasant, variety, favorable, true, trustworthy, loyal, religious, acceptable, nice), from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz (beneficial, gracious, loyal), from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to have a tendency, incline, bend, tip). Cognate with German maintain (gracious, pleasant, sympathetic, grateful), Danish and Swedish huld (honest, kindly, gracious), Icelandic hollur (trustworthy, devoted, loyal), German Huld (grace, favour).


maintain (comparative extra maintain, superlative most maintain)

  1. (out of date) Gracious; pleasant; trustworthy; true.



Etymology 1[edit]

From Outdated Norse hald (grip, energy, maintain). Additionally see holde (to carry).


maintain n (singular particular holdet, plural indefinite maintain)

  1. crew (group of individuals working or taking part in collectively)
  2. class (group of scholars taught collectively)
  3. distance, facet (solely with the prepositions or fra and an adjective)
  4. fact
  5. ache (within the muscle tissues)
  6. (uncommon) maintain

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the principle entry.



  1. crucial of holde


From Center Excessive German holt, from Outdated Excessive German maintain, from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz. Cognates embrace Gothic 𐌷𐌿𐌻𐌸𐍃 (hulþs, clement) and Outdated Norse hollr ( > Danish huld).



maintain (comparative holder, superlative am holdesten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) pleasant, comely, swish
    • 1907, Carl Spitteler, Die Mädchenfeinde, Siebentes Kapitel, Beim Narrenſtudenten
      • Um aber auf deinen holden Kadettengeneral zurückzukommen, ſo will ich dir, weil du mir dein Geheimnis anvertraut haſt, auch etwas Geheimnisvolles verraten […]


Additional studying[edit]

  • “maintain” in Duden on-line



From Proto-Uralic *kuŋe. Cognates embrace Hungarian (month), Finnish and Estonian kuu.


  • IPA(key): [ ˈhold]
  • Hyphenation: maintain
  • Rhymes: -old


maintain (plural holdak)

  1. moon, pure satellite tv for pc
  2. unit of floor space, initially meant the identical as acre, has completely different varieties starting from 3500 m² to 8400 m²
  3. (attributive utilization) lunar

    maintainfogyatkozáslunar eclipse

Utilization notes[edit]

Some astronomical and geographical phrases have each a lowercase (frequent noun) and a capitalized (correct noun) kind. For föld (floor, soil; Earth)―​Föld (Earth), maintain (moon, satellite tv for pc; Moon)―​Maintain (our Moon), and nap (day; solar; Solar)―​Nap (our Solar), the lowercase varieties are used within the on a regular basis sense and the capitalized varieties within the astronomical sense. In different comparable pairs, the previous refers to generic sense, and the latter specifies the most effective recognized referent: egyenlítő (equator)―​Egyenlítő (Equator), naprendszer (photo voltaic system)―​Naprendszer (Photo voltaic System), and tejút (galaxy, actually “milky manner”, however galaxis and galaktika are extra frequent)―​Tejút (Milky Manner).[5][6][7]


Derived phrases[edit]



From Outdated Norse maintain, from Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognate with Swedish hull.



maintain n (genitive singular holds, no plural)

  1. flesh
    • Isaiah 40 (Icelandic, English)
      Heyr, einhver segir: “Kalla þú!” Og ég svara: “Hvað skal ég kalla?” “Allt maintain er gras og allur yndisleikur þess sem blóm vallarins. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, þegar Drottinn andar á þau. Sannlega, mennirnir eru gras. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, en orð Guðs vors stendur stöðugt eilíflega.”

      A voice says, “Cry out.” And I mentioned, “What shall I cry?” “All flesh are like grass, and all their glory is just like the flowers of the sphere. The grass withers and the flowers fall, as a result of the breath of the LORD blows on them. Certainly the individuals are grass. The grass withers and the flowers fall, however the phrase of our God stands eternally.”


Center English[edit]


From Outdated English maintain.



  1. pleasant, trustworthy



  1. carcase, flesh

Associated phrases[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]



  1. crucial of holde

Derived phrases[edit]

Outdated English[edit]


Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognates embrace Outdated Norse maintain (flesh) (Icelandic maintain, Swedish hull), and (from Indo-European) Outdated Irish colainn, Welsh celain.


maintain n (nominative plural maintain)

  1. lifeless physique; carcass
    Swā swā grǣdiġe ræmmas ðār ðār hī maintain ġesēoþ.

    Like grasping ravens after they see a corpse.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz, a variant on a root which means ‘lean, incline’ (examine Outdated English heald, hieldan).

Cognates embrace Outdated Frisian maintain, Outdated Saxon maintain, Outdated Excessive German maintain (German maintain), Outdated Norse hollr (Danish huld, Swedish huld), Gothic 𐌷𐌿𐌻𐌸𐍃 (hulþs).


maintain (comparative holdra, superlative holdost) (+ dative)

  1. gracious, loyal, variety
    Swā maintain is God mancynne ðæt he hæfþ ġeset his englas us to hyrdum.

    God is so gracious to mankind that he has appointed angels as our guardians.

Outdated Excessive German[edit]


From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz



  1. pleasant , loyal

Derived phrases[edit]




maintain m (plural holds)

  1. (baseball) maintain

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