Flag-carrier airline of Japan
Japan Airways Co., Ltd. (JAL) (日本航空株式会社, Nihon Kōkū Kabushiki-gaisha), also called Nikkō (日航), is a world airline and Japan’s flag provider, headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Its predominant hubs are Tokyo’s Narita Worldwide Airport and Haneda Airport, in addition to Osaka’s Kansai Worldwide Airport and Itami Airport. JAL group corporations embody Japan Airways, J-Air, Japan Air Commuter, Japan Transocean Air, and Ryukyu Air Commuter for home feeder companies, and JAL Cargo for cargo and mail companies.
JAL group operations embody scheduled and unscheduled worldwide and home passenger and cargo companies to 220 locations in 35 international locations worldwide, together with codeshares. The group has a fleet of 279 plane. Within the fiscal 12 months ended 31 March 2009, the airline group carried over 52 million passengers and over 1.1 million tons of cargo and mail. Japan Airways, J-Air, JAL Categorical, and Japan Transocean Air are members of the Oneworld airline alliance community.
JAL was established in 1951 and have become the nationwide airline of Japan in 1953. After over three a long time of service and enlargement, the airline was totally privatised in 1987. In 2002, the airline merged with Japan Air System, Japan’s third-largest airline, and have become the sixth-largest airline on the earth by passengers carried. Japan Airways is presently an official sponsor of Japan Soccer Affiliation, Japan nationwide soccer workforce, Shimizu S-Pulse, and Consadole Sapporo. All Nippon Airways, the biggest airline in Japan, is JAL’s predominant competitor.
Japan Air Traces Co., Ltd. was established on 1 August 1951, with the federal government of Japan recognising the necessity for a dependable air transportation system to assist Japan develop within the aftermath of the World Warfare II. The airline was based with an preliminary capital of ¥100 million; its headquarters are positioned in Ginza, Chūō, Tokyo. Between 27 and 29 August, the airline operated invitational flights on a Douglas DC-3 Kinsei, leased from Philippine Airways. On 25 October, Japan’s first postwar home airline service was inaugurated, utilizing a Martin 2-0-2 plane, named Mokusei, and crew leased from Northwest Orient Airways subsidiary TALOA. 
On 1 August 1953, the Nationwide Weight loss program handed the Japan Air Traces Firm Act (日本航空株式会社法, Nihon Kōkū Kabushiki-gaisha Hō) forming a brand new state-owned Japan Air Traces on 1 October, which assumed all belongings and liabilities of its non-public predecessor. By 1953, the JAL community prolonged northward from Tokyo to Sapporo and Misawa, and westward to Nagoya, Osaka, Iwakuni, and Fukuoka.
On 2 February 1954, the airline started worldwide flights, carrying 18 passengers from Tokyo to San Francisco on a Douglas DC-6B Metropolis of Tokyo through Wake Island and Honolulu. The flights between Tokyo and San Francisco are nonetheless Flights 1 and a pair of, to commemorate its first worldwide service. The early flights have been marketed as being operated by American crews and serviced by United Air Traces in San Francisco.
The airline, along with the Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-6B, and Martin 2-0-2s, operated Douglas DC-4s and Douglas DC-7Cs through the 1950s. JAL flew to Hong Kong through Okinawa by 1955, having pared down its home community to Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and Sapporo. By 1958, the Hong Kong route had been prolonged to Bangkok and Singapore. With DC-7Cs, JAL was in a position to fly nonstop between Seattle and Tokyo in 1959.
In 1960, the airline took supply of its first jet, a Douglas DC-Eight named Fuji, introducing jet service on the Tokyo-Honolulu-San Francisco route. JAL went on to function a fleet of 51 DC-8s, retiring the final of the sort in 1987. Fuji flew till 1974 and was then used as a upkeep coaching platform till 1989; its nostril part was saved at Haneda Airport and ultimately placed on public show on the JAL Sky Museum in March 2014.
JAL additionally started flying to Seattle and Hong Kong in 1960. On the finish of 1961, JAL had transpolar flights from Tokyo to Seattle, Copenhagen, London, and Paris through Anchorage, Alaska, and to Los Angeles and San Francisco through Honolulu, Hawaii.
Through the 1960s, JAL flew to many new cities, together with Moscow, New York, and Busan. DC-Eight flights to Europe through Anchorage began in 1961; flights to Europe through India began in 1962, initially with Convair 880s.
By 1965, Japan Air Traces was headquartered within the Tokyo Constructing in Marunouchi, Chiyoda, Tokyo. By this time, over half of JAL’s income was generated on transpacific routes to the USA, and the airline was lobbying the USA for fifth freedom rights to fly transatlantic routes from the East Coast. The transpacific route was prolonged east from San Francisco to New York in November 1966 and to London in 1967; flights between San Francisco and London led to December 1972.
Between 1967 and 1969, JAL had an settlement with Aeroflot to function a joint service between Tokyo and Moscow utilizing a Soviet Tupolev Tu-114. The flight crew included one JAL member, and the cabin crew had 5 members every from Aeroflot and JAL. The weekly flight began in April 1967; in Could, the schedule was 10 hr 35 min Moscow to Tokyo and 11 hr 25 min to return.
In 1972, beneath the 45/47 system (45/47体制, yongo-yonnana taisei), the so-called “aviation structure” enacted by the Japanese authorities, JAL was granted flag provider standing to function worldwide routes. The airline was additionally designated to function home trunk routes in competitors with All Nippon Airways and Toa Home Airways.
The signing of a civil air transport settlement between China and Japan on 20 April 1974 induced the suspension of air routes between the Taiwan and Japan on 21 April. A brand new subsidiary, Japan Asia Airways, was established on Eight August 1975, and air companies between the 2 international locations have been restored on 15 September. Through the 1970s, the airline purchased the Boeing 727, Boeing 747, and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 for its rising routes inside Japan and to different international locations.
Within the 1980s the airline carried out particular flights for the Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko of Japan, Pope John Paul II and for Japanese prime ministers, till the introduction of the devoted authorities plane utilizing two Boeing 747-400, operated as Japanese Air Drive One and Japanese Air Drive Two. Throughout that decade, the airline launched new Boeing 747-100SR, Boeing 747-SUD, and Boeing 767 jets to the fleet, and retired the Boeing 727s and Douglas DC-8s.
In 1978, JAL began flights to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro through Anchorage and San Juan; the stopover was modified to Los Angeles in 1982 and to New York’s John F. Kennedy Worldwide Airport in 1999. Till 2009, the airline operated fifth-freedom flights between New York and São Paulo and between Vancouver and Mexico Metropolis.
Japan started contemplating airline deregulation within the late 1970s, with the federal government asserting the abandoning of the 45/47 system in 1985. In 1987, Japan Airways was fully privatised, and the opposite two airways in Japan, All Nippon Airways and Japan Air System, have been permitted to compete with JAL on home and worldwide routes. Elevated competitors resulted in modifications to the airline’s company construction, and it was reorganised into three divisions: worldwide passenger service, home passenger service, and cargo (together with mail) service.
Japan Airways started the 1990s with flights to evacuate Japanese residents from Iraq earlier than the beginning of the Gulf Warfare. In October 1990, Japan Air Constitution was established, and in September 1996, an settlement with the Walt Disney Firm made Japan Airways the official airline of Tokyo Disneyland. JAL Categorical was established in April 1997, with Boeing 737 plane. Within the 1990s, the airline encountered additional financial difficulties stemming from recessions in the USA and the UK, plus a home downturn. Following years of revenue since 1986, the airline started to put up working losses in 1992. Price-cutting, together with the formation of the low-cost JAL Categorical home subsidiary and the switch of vacationer operations to JALways (the successor to Japan Air Constitution), helped return the airline to profitability in 1999.
In 1997, the airline flew Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto to Peru to assist negotiate within the Japanese embassy hostage disaster. Japan Airways positioned orders for Boeing 777s through the 1990s, permitting for fleet renewal. It was one among eight airways collaborating within the Boeing 777 design course of, shaping the design to their specs.
In 2001, Japan Air System and Japan Airways agreed to merge; and on 2 October 2002, they established a brand new holding firm known as Japan Airways System (日本航空システム, Nihon Kōkū Shisutemu), forming a brand new core of the JAL Group. Plane liveries have been modified to match the design of the brand new JAL Group. At the moment, the merged group of airways was the sixth-largest on the earth by passengers carried.
On 1 April 2004, JAL modified its identify to Japan Airways Worldwide and JAS modified its identify to Japan Airways Home. JAS flight codes have been modified to JAL flight codes, JAS check-in desks have been refitted in JAL livery, and JAS plane have been step by step repainted. On 26 June 2004, the guardian firm Japan Airways System was renamed to Japan Airways Company.
Following the merger, two corporations operated beneath the JAL model: Japan Airways Worldwide (日本航空インターナショナル, Nihon Kōkū Intānashonaru) and Japan Airways Home (日本航空ジャパン, Nihon Kōkū Japan). Japan Airways Home had major accountability for JAL’s massive community of intra-Japan flights, whereas JAL Worldwide operated each worldwide and trunk home flights. On 1 October 2006, Japan Airways Worldwide and Japan Airways Home merged right into a single model, Japan Airways Worldwide.
The airline utilized to hitch Oneworld on 25 October 2005. Japan Airways claimed that its Oneworld membership could be in the very best pursuits of the airline’s plans to additional develop the airline group and its sturdy dedication to offering the perfect to its prospects. Japan Airways, along with Malév and Royal Jordanian, joined the alliance on 1 April 2007.
On 1 April 2008, JAL merged the operations of its subsidiary Japan Asia Airways (JAA) into JAL mainline operations. JAA had operated all JAL group flights between Japan and Taiwan between 1975 and 2008 as a separate entity because of the particular political standing of Taiwan.
Restructure and chapter
In 2009, Japan Airways suffered steep monetary losses, regardless of remaining Asia’s largest airline by income. Consequently, the airline launched into employees cuts and route cutbacks in an effort to cut back prices. The provider additionally obtained ¥100 billion by means of capital injection and credit score from the Japanese authorities as a part of the proposed chapter. In September 2009, Japan’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism fashioned a activity drive geared toward aiding a company turnaround at JAL, which examined varied cost-cutting and strategic partnership proposals.
One proposal thought of was to merge JAL with All Nippon Airways (ANA), which might create a single bigger worldwide airline and exchange Japan Airways Worldwide; nonetheless, media experiences urged that this proposal could be opposed by ANA given its comparatively higher monetary efficiency as an unbiased provider. The duty drive additionally examined attainable partnerships with overseas carriers.
After weeks of hypothesis, JAL utilized for defense beneath the Company Rehabilitation Legislation (the Japanese equal of Administration in the UK or a Chapter 11 chapter submitting in the USA) on 19 January 2010. JAL would obtain a ¥300 billion money injection and have money owed price ¥730 billion waived, in change for which it’ll minimize its capital to zero, minimize unprofitable routes and cut back its workforce by 15,700 staff—a 3rd of its 47,000 whole. JAL’s predominant collectors (Mizuho Company Financial institution, Financial institution of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ and Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Company) initially objected to the chapter declaration, however modified their positions after the Enterprise Turnaround Initiative Company of Japan beneficial courtroom safety, in line with a senior financial institution official. Shares of JAL have been delisted from the Tokyo Inventory Change on 20 February 2010. At a time, its inventory was thought of one among “bluest of blue chips” of Japan. On the time, the chapter was the biggest Japanese chapter involving a non-financial firm and the fourth largest in Japan’s historical past.
Kazuo Inamori, founding father of Kyocera and KDDI, took over as CEO of JAL. Transport minister Seiji Maehara personally visited Kyocera headquarters in late 2009 to influence Inamori to just accept the place; activity drive chief Shinjiro Takagi believed that appointing a confirmed entrepreneur CEO was crucial to repair the varied issues at JAL.Japan Air Commuter president Masaru Onishi was promoted to president of JAL.
In Could, JAL started to see a rise in its passenger numbers by 1.1% year-on-year. In August, it was reported that JAL would minimize 19,133 jobs from its workforce of 47,000 by the tip of March 2015 – while additionally rising capability – in an try and make the enterprise viable.
Rivalry between Delta and American
Though JAL in the end exited chapter whereas remaining within the Oneworld alliance, JAL was severely contemplating accepting a strategic funding from Delta Air Traces and becoming a member of the SkyTeam alliance through the interval between September 2009 and February 2010. JAL additionally had talks with Skyteam members Air France-KLM and Korean Air concerning their potential involvement.
The Delta deal was favored by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as a result of Delta had an intensive world community and had the biggest Japanese operation of any overseas airline, which it had inherited by means of its merger with Northwest Airways. MLITT additionally supported a transaction with Air France-KLM as a result of it was a “more healthy firm” than American.
American deliberate to workforce up with Oneworld alliance members British Airways and Qantas to make a joint provide to recapitalise JAL. British Airways stated that it was trying to influence JAL to stay a part of Oneworld relatively than aligning itself with Delta and SkyTeam, whereas American CEO Gerard Arpey stated that American and Oneworld remained dedicated to a partnership with Japan Airways, so long as it remained a serious worldwide provider, and reiterated his encouragement for JAL to stick with Oneworld throughout ceremonies to welcome Mexicana into the alliance.
In an interview with the Asahi Shimbun on 1 January 2010, JAL president Haruka Nishimatsu said his choice in forming a partnership with Delta over American, and the Yomiuri Shimbun reported shortly thereafter that JAL and the Japanese government-backed Enterprise Turnaround Initiative Company would probably select to kind a enterprise and capital tie-up with Delta, as a part of which JAL would enter SkyTeam and cut back its worldwide flight operations in favor of code-share agreements with Delta, and that American Airways had begun procedures to finish negotiations with JAL. Each JAL and American denied the report. The Wall Road Journal then reported that American Airways raised its JAL funding provide by $300 million, to $1.4 billion, and in separate feedback to the press, Delta president Ed Bastian stated that Delta was “prepared and in a position to elevate further capital by means of third-party assets.”
After JAL filed for chapter, there have been additional media experiences that JAL would go away Oneworld in favor of SkyTeam, however JAL president Masaru Onishi stated on 1 February that the brand new JAL management was “severely reviewing the difficulty from scratch, with out being influenced by earlier discussions,” and its determination on an alliance associate could be made quickly.
On 7 February, a number of information shops reported that JAL would determine to maintain its alliance with American Airways and finish talks with Delta. Inamori and ETIC officers, in line with the experiences, determined that switching alliances from Oneworld to Skyteam could be too dangerous and will hinder JAL’s skill to show round shortly. Two days later, JAL formally introduced that it might strengthen its partnership with American, together with a joint software for antitrust immunity on transpacific routes. The airline would additionally fortify its relationship with different companions within the Oneworld alliance.
JAL emerged from chapter safety in March 2011. In July, ETIC chosen Nomura Holdings, Daiwa Securities, Mitsubishi UFJ, Morgan Stanley, Mizuho Securities, SMBC, and Nikko Securities to underwrite the sale of its fairness stake in JAL, with out specifying quantities or dates. On 6 January 2012, JAL introduced its intent to relist its shares on the Tokyo Inventory Change in an preliminary public providing (IPO) of as much as ¥1 trillion, which might be the biggest providing in Japan in additional than a 12 months. The airline accomplished its IPO on the first part of the Tokyo Inventory Change (TYO: 9201) on 19 September 2012. The Enterprise Turnaround Initiative Company of Japan bought all its holdings (96.5%) in JAL for ¥650 billion, larger than its ¥350 billion funding in 2010. Although it was oversubscribed a number of occasions, the post-IPO enhance of the inventory was near 1%.
Following its exit from chapter safety, JAL started a number of new partnerships inside the Oneworld alliance. The transpacific three way partnership between JAL and American commenced in April 2011. JAL fashioned Jetstar Japan, a low-cost provider three way partnership with Qantas subsidiary Jetstar Airways, in July. In 2012, JAL and British Airways guardian firm Worldwide Airways Group (IAG) submitted functions to the Japanese authorities and European Union respectively in looking for a three way partnership enterprise operation for flights between Japan and Europe.Finnair utilized to hitch the JV with IAG in July 2013, at the side of JAL beginning new nonstop service to Helsinki.
Company affairs and identification
Along with its operations beneath the JAL identify, the airline owns 5 home airways which feed or complement mainline JAL flights:
- JALways was the airline’s worldwide subsidiary, which dealt with low-yield flights to resort locations in Hawaii, Oceania, and Southeast Asia.
- JAL Categorical (JEX) was the airline’s low-cost provider for jet companies between secondary cities, it merged into Japan Airways in 2014.
JALUX Inc., established in 1962, is the airline’s procurement enterprise which handles varied work for the corporate, together with the JAL SELECTION merchandise and in-flight meals and refreshments, provides for Blue Sky and JAL-DFS retailers, plane gas parts, cabin companies, and in-flight duty-free. JALUX merged with JAS Buying and selling on 1 January 2004, to unify help operations for the JAL group.
JAL Cargo is the model of the airline group’s freight service and is a member of the WOW cargo alliance with these merchandise: J Pace, Common Cargo, and Harmful Items. Within the fiscal 12 months ended 31 March 2009, the cargo division carried 500,779 tonnes of freight domestically and 627,213 tonnes of freight internationally.
On 1 April 2011, the airline modified its commerce identify from Japan Airways Worldwide Co., Ltd (株式会社日本航空インターナショナル, Kabushiki-gaisha Nihon Kōkū Intānashonaru) to Japan Airways Co., Ltd (日本航空株式会社, Nihon Kōkū Kabushiki-gaisha). within the first quarter of 2019, JAL launches its low price provider, ZIPAIR Tokyo, which can give attention to medium to long-haul locations. It’s estimated to begin operation in summer time 2020.
The headquarters, the Nomura Fudosan Tennozu Constructing (野村不動産天王洲ビル, Nomura Fudōsan Tennōzu Biru), are positioned on Tennōzu Isle in Higashi Shinagawa, Shinagawa, Tokyo. The 26-floor constructing was a venture of the Kajima Company. The constructing, which additionally has two underground ranges, has a land space of 11,670.Four sq. metres (125,619 sq ft) and a flooring space of 82,602.11 sq. metres (889,121.7 sq ft).
A number of divisions of JAL, together with JALPAK, JAL Aero-Consulting, and JAL Lodges are positioned within the constructing. The constructing additionally homes the Japan workplace of American Airways. Additionally it is often called the JAL Constructing (ＪＡＬビルディング, JAL Birudingu), the Japan Airways Headquarters, and the Shinagawa Kyodo Constructing.
When JAL was initially established in 1951, its headquarters have been in Ginza, Chuo, Tokyo. By 1965, Japan Air Traces was headquartered within the Tokyo Constructing in Marunouchi, Chiyoda, Tokyo. The Yomiuri Shimbun said that as a result of Japan Airways labored carefully with the Japanese authorities, individuals mockingly referred to the Tokyo Constructing as “a department workplace of the transport ministry.”
On 28 June 1996, building was accomplished on the JAL Constructing. On 27 July 1996, JAL moved its headquarters into the JAL Constructing. The Flight Operation Middle on the JAL Constructing started on 20 September 1996. A holding firm for JAL and Japan Airways System, a provider merging into JAL, was established on 2 October 2002; the top workplace of that firm, Japan Airways System (JALS) (日本航空システム, Nihon Kōkū Shisutemu), was in 2-15-1 Kōnan in Shinagawa Intercity, Minato, Tokyo. On 11 August 2003, the headquarters of JAS moved from Haneda Upkeep Middle 1 to the JAL Constructing. On 25 November 2003, the JALS headquarters moved to the JAL Constructing. Initially the JAL Constructing was co-owned by Japan Airways and Mitsubishi Buying and selling Co.; they co-owned a subsidiary that owned the JAL Constructing. In 2004, the constructing was to be bought to Nomura Actual Property for 65 billion yen. The contract date was 1 December 2004, and the handover date was 18 March 2005.
The JAL Subsidiary JALUX Inc. at one time had its headquarters within the JAL Constructing. One group of staff moved out of the constructing on 26 July 2010, and one moved out on 2 August 2010.
Brand and fundamental liveries
The JAL livery is named the tsurumaru (鶴丸) or “crane circle.” It’s a picture of a Japanese red-crown crane with its wings prolonged in full flight. The Tsurumaru JAL emblem was created in 1958 by Jerry Huff, the artistic director at Botsford, Constantine and Gardner of San Francisco, which had been the promoting company for Japan Airways from its earliest days. JAL had used a number of logos up till 1958. When the airline organized to purchase new Douglas DC-8s, it determined to create a brand new official emblem for the inauguration of its jet service worldwide.
Within the creation of the emblem, Huff was impressed by the private crests of Samurai households. In a guide he’d been given, We Japanese, he discovered pages of crests, together with the crane. On his selection of the crane, he writes: “I had religion that it was the proper image for Japan Air Traces. I discovered that the Crane fable was all optimistic—it mates for all times (loyalty), and flies excessive for miles with out tiring (power.)”
The tsurumaru livery was in use till 2002, when it was changed by a livery known as the “Arc of the Solar.” The livery featured the motif of a rising solar on a creamy parchment-colored background.
JAL is a robust supporter of UNICEF and expresses its help by having a “We Help UNICEF” emblem on every plane.
Following its company restructuring, Japan Airways returned to the traditional tsurumaru emblem beginning on 1 April 2011. A Boeing 767-300 was the final remaining plane that had the “Arc of the Solar” livery till it was retired in January 2016.
JAL is thought for adopting particular liveries. A Boeing 747 (JA8908) carried an Adidas soccer livery in 2002. One other Boeing 747 (JA8907) was the Matsui Jet, that includes the well-known Japanese baseball participant Hideki Matsui in 2003. One of many airline’s Boeing 767-300 (JA8253) was the Expo 2005 plane.
Numerous plane within the JAL fleet additionally carry a Yokoso Japan emblem supporting the Go to Japan marketing campaign, in varied kinds. Throughout late 2005, Japan Airways started utilizing a Boeing 777 (JA8941), that includes Japanese actor Shingo Katori on one facet, and tv collection Saiyuki, together with its predominant character “Goku” on the opposite facet.
JAL has additionally been identified for its liveries that includes Tokyo Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea, as it’s the official airline of the Tokyo Disney Resort. It sponsors the attraction Star Jets (not associated to previous Star Jets fleet with the outdated tsurumaru livery), which includes a variation of the present livery on the journey autos. At one time there have been greater than six widebody plane painted with the particular liveries.
Some Boeing 747s of JAL had additionally been painted with tropical-influenced liveries together with Reso’cha titles. These plane have been usually utilized by JALways on constitution flights to vacation locations within the Pacific, equivalent to Hawaii. Reso’cha was a advertising abbreviation for Resort Constitution, and have been previously often called JAL Tremendous Resort Categorical.
In April 2007, JAL debuted a Boeing 777-300 (JA8941, since moved to JA752J) with a particular Oneworld livery to advertise the airways’s entry to the worldwide airline alliance. Beforehand this plane carried the Shingo Katori and the Saiyuki tv livery.
JAL repainted a Boeing 777-200 (JA8984) in 2008 and a Boeing 777-300ER (JA731J) in 2009 to have a inexperienced relatively than pink arc on its tail, together with a inexperienced origami airplane on the fuselage, and named them the Eco Jet, to focus on the corporate’s efforts to cut back the environmental influence of economic aviation. Following the model picture change to the third Tsurumaru livery, JAL redesigned the two Eco Jet liveries. JA8984’s livery was eliminated in April 2019 previous to its retirement in December 2019 whereas JA731J’s livery was moved onto JA734J (one other JAL 777-300ER), which continues flying the Eco Jet livery as of March 2020.
In 2009, JAL repainted JA8941 once more, in addition to a JTA 737-400 (JA8933) to advertise Kobukuro and their new album Calling in addition to a dwell live performance tour in Okinawa and round Japan. This livery was launched formally on 30 July 2009. It has since then been changed with a particular Doraemon livery.
On Four September 2010, at the side of the Boku no Miteiru Fūkei album, JAL and Arashi (which one of many songs, “Movin’ On”, is used for a business) launched a brand new livery that includes the 5 members of Arashi within the plane; the primary flight was on the day after on 5 September.
On Three August 2017, JAL introduced a brand new livery on board an Embraer 190 of subsidiary J-Air, in commemoration of the brand new Despicable Me: Minion Mayhem journey in Common Studios Japan.
Ranging from April 2019, JAL has additionally launched the ‘Tokyo 2020, Fly For it!’ collection of particular liveries, in commemoration of the upcoming Tokyo 2020 Olympics and that includes the 2 mascots of the 2020 Olympics. There have been 2 jetliners in JAL fleet painted to date, specifically JA773J (a Boeing 777-200, painted April 2019) and JA601J (a Boeing 767-300ER, painted July 2019)
In 1959, Japan Airways adopted a emblem which is a crane often called the ‘Tsuru’ crane. Landor Associates created JAL’s model identification in 1989. A fusion of the JAL letters with a pink sq. and gray band function on the fuselage. The ‘Tsuru’ crane was retained on the tail however with a brand new stylised JAL lettering integrated inside it. After Japan Airways and Japan Air System merged, the Tokyo workplace of Landor and JAL labored collectively once more to create a brand new model identification. Landor determined to make use of the “arc of the solar” picture. The 2000s rebranding started in April 2002 and accomplished in April 2004. The model identification agency designed 300,000 particular gadgets for JAL. The JAL acronym remained, however it was modified to incorporate a curved bar, which changed the easy pink sq. and grey rectangle used from 1989. The curved bar was likened to a samurai sword. The tail now featured 1 / 4 solar outlined in silver. JAL modified its branding once more on 1 April 2011, reverting to the unique 1959 model, with slight modifications. The livery featured the tsurumaru again on the empennage and the total identify above the home windows, however close to the cockpit. Repainting was accomplished in January 2016.
Japan Airways serves 60 home locations and 39 worldwide locations in Asia, the Americas, Europe and Oceania, excluding codeshare agreements. The airline’s worldwide hubs are Tokyo’s Narita Worldwide Airport and Haneda Airport, Osaka’s Kansai Worldwide Airport and Itami Airport. Japan Airways and its subsidiaries presently function over 4,500 worldwide flights and 26,000 home flights month-to-month.
Within the fiscal 12 months ended 31 March 2009, the airline launched or elevated companies on ten worldwide routes, together with between Tokyo (Narita) and New York Metropolis, and between Osaka (Kansai) and Shanghai; and it ceased operations on 4 worldwide routes, together with between Tokyo (Narita) and Xi’an, and between Osaka (Kansai) and Qingdao. Domestically, JAL suspended 14 routes, together with between Sapporo and Okinawa. Moreover, the airline expanded codesharing alliance with fellow Oneworld companions like American Airways, British Airways, Cathay Pacific and Finnair, and different airways, together with Air France, China Jap and Jetstar.
Within the early years, Tokyo Narita Airport had been the principle hub of worldwide and freight flights. These days, Tokyo Haneda Airport is changing into a world hub due to its shut proximity to the Tokyo metropolis, and the heavy enlargement occurring there.
Japan Airways has codeshare agreements with the next airways:
Along with the above codeshares, Japan Airways has entered into joint ventures with the next airways:
As of October 2020[update], Japan Airways operates a fleet of 176 plane.
Because the Japanese authorities plans so as to add extra slots at Tokyo’s Haneda Airport by 2020 (in time for the 2020 Summer time Olympics), Japan Airways intends to order extra widebodies for progress in 2018 or 2019: it may train its 25 choices on Airbus A350s on prime of its 31 agency orders, due for supply from 2019, and research others such because the proposed Boeing New Midsize Airplane or the 787-10 so as to add to its 787-9 with 10 remaining to be delivered.
Japan Airways operates a mix of narrow-body and wide-body plane. The airline gives financial system class service on all routes; enterprise class (J) service with bigger seats within the cabin entrance on most main home routes; premium financial system on some worldwide routes; enterprise class on most long-haul and a few short-haul worldwide routes; and firstclass on some long-haul and home routes.
On 5 December 2017, JAL introduced it had invested $10 million within the plane producer Increase Supersonic, which is presently growing a brand new supersonic business airliner able to seating as much as 55 passengers. In change for its funding, JAL will be capable of pre-order as much as 20 Increase plane.
JAL Cargo was as soon as a freighter airline working for JAL. It ended devoted freighter plane operations in October 2010 after greater than 30 years of service. It operated each propeller and jet plane by means of the years, most lately Boeing 747-400s (together with plane transformed from passenger to freighter configuration) and Boeing 767-300Fs. Restricted cargo exercise is now maintained by means of JAL’s passenger plane decrease deck holds.
Japan Airways has beforehand used the next plane sorts:
JAL launched new worldwide First and Government Class seats: the JAL Suite for First Class, featured a seat 20 p.c roomier than the Skysleeper Solo in a 1-2-1 configuration; and the JAL Shell Flat Neo Seat for Government Class Seasons, a barely revised model of the unique Shell Flat Seat, with a wider seat; expanded middle console; and the world’s first in-flight photograph artwork exhibit, Sky Gallery. These seats, together with the Premium Financial system seats, debuted on Japan Airways Flights 5 and 6, operated on the Tokyo–New York route on 1 August 2008. It expanded to the Tokyo–San Francisco route on 13 September 2008, and the Tokyo–Chicago and Los Angeles in 2009. Since 31 October 2010, the brand new cabin can be used on flights from Narita to Jakarta, being the one Asian vacation spot for which the brand new cabin is used.
In 2013, JAL debuted new variations of its financial system and premium financial system seats known as Sky Premium and Sky Wider Financial system respectively. The Sky Premium seats, discovered on chosen 777-300s and shortly 787s, function the identical width because the Sky Shell seats however with a 4″ bigger seat pitch of 42″ and a 3″ bigger recline of as much as 10″ in comparison with a 38″ pitch and seven” recline on the Sky Shell seats. The Sky Wider Financial system seats, discovered on choose 767’s and choose 777-300s, function slimmer seats with 4″ extra legroom, and one other inch of width totaling as much as 35″ of seat pitch, and a 19″ width in comparison with the 31″ pitch and 18″ width of ordinary financial system seats, plus a bigger PTV display of as much as 11″. The newer 787s will function a brand new model of the Sky Wider seats known as Sky Wider II, which can function 5″ extra legroom and a pair of” extra width totaling as much as 36″ of seat pitch and a 20″ width in a much less dense 2-4-2 setup as an alternative of the 3-3-Three setup generally utilized in a 787’s financial system cabin.
In premium cabins, JAL launched totally lie-flat seats, branded as Sky Suite in Enterprise Class cabin and enhanced First Suite seats in First Class cabin. The Sky Suite is in a staggered 2-3-2 setup that provide direct aisle entry to all enterprise class passengers. These might be discovered on all 13 of JAL’s Boeing 777-300ER plane (named SS7), 10 of JAL’s 787-Eight plane (named SS8) and eight of JAL’s 787-9 plane (named SS9). Later in 2015, JAL launched a brand new model of Sky Suite, known as Sky Suite II, to be able to match lie-flat seats on its new worldwide 767-300ER fleet (named SS6), in a 1-2-1 setup. Because the seats are much less large than the unique Sky Suite, SS6 plane are sometimes seen on shorter worldwide routes, like inter-Asian routes and Hawaiian routes. In 2016, as JAL was upgrading its Boeing 777-200ER fleet used on chosen inter-Asian and Hawaiian flights, JAL launched a 3rd model of Sky Suite, known as Sky Suite III, which is a lie-flat reverse-herringbone organized seat. This seat is provided on JAL’s most Boeing 777-200ER fleet (named SS2) and 5 of JAL’s Boeing 787-9 fleet (named SS9 II) in a 1-2-1 setup. Like SS6 plane, SS2 and SS9 II plane are working on shorter worldwide routes. All flights geared up with lie-flat J seats could also be accessed right here: for Sky Suite flights; for Sky Suite II flights; for Sky Suite III flights.
The airline’s worldwide companies with current cabins function the totally reclining JAL First Class JAL Suite; JAL Enterprise Class JAL Sky Suite, JAL Sky Suite II, JAL Sky Suite III, JAL Shell Flat NEO, JAL Skyluxe Seat or JAL Skyrecliner; JAL Premium Financial system JAL Sky Premium; and JAL Financial system Class JAL Financial system Class Seat or JAL Sky Wider. The First Class Skysleeper Solo reclines totally and options real leather-based upholstery from Poltrona Frau of Italy. The Government Class Seasons Shell Flat Seat is a lie-flat design with the power to decrease armrests to the identical top because the seat when reclined. Premium Financial system is a latest addition, it was first launched on the Tokyo–London route on 1 December 2007. It includes a shell-shaped seat that permits passengers to recline by sliding their seat ahead, with out having the seat in entrance intrude when reclining.
Japan home companies
On Japan home companies, the airline presents First Class, Government Class Class J and Financial system Class. The First Class seat is constructed from premium real leather-based with a seat width of about 53 cm (21 in) and a seat pitch of about 130 cm (51 in).Class J options ergonomically designed reclining seats that promote rest by permitting passengers to maneuver naturally and keep a balanced posture. JAL plans to start refitting its home fleet with leather-based seats and in-flight wi-fi web service from Could 2014.
MAGIC, JAL’s in-flight leisure system, supported by the JAL Mooove! (previously Leisure Community), options the newest hit films and movies, video games and audio packages. There are six generations of the MAGIC system: MAGIC-I, MAGIC-II, MAGIC-III, MAGIC-IV, MAGIC-V and the brand new MAGIC-VI. Launched on 1 December 2007, the MAGIC-III system gives Audio/Video on Demand (AVOD) leisure to all passengers. The variety of film, music, video and sport channels on MAGIC-III was doubled from 57 to 130 by 2008; and it’s put in on all seats on Boeing 767-300ER, 777-200ER and 777-300ER plane. Plane with MAGIC-I and MAGIC-II have films that mechanically begin when the AVOD system is turned on—as soon as the plane reaches cruise stage—and financial system class passengers can tune in to look at the film in progress; and all films restart upon completion. Government and First Class passengers have full AVOD management. MAGIC methods even have JAL’s duty-free buying catalogue, together with flight crew suggestions and a video of specials accessible on the flight.MAGIC-V will function principally the identical leisure as MAGIC-III, however with a contact display controller, together with a handset. There shall be USB ports for iPod connectivity, and a neater to regulate handset. (launched on chosen Boeing 767-300ER routes).
The MAGIC-III system is used on internationally configured Boeing 767-300 with Skyluxe Seat, older internationally configured Boeing 767-300ER with Skyluxe Seat, all Boeing 777-200ER, older Boeing 777-300ER with Skysleeper Solo/Suite firstclass and Shell Flat Seat/Neo Enterprise class. The MAGIC-IV is used on internationally configured Boeing 737-800s, together with a more moderen look of Skyluxe Seat. It makes use of 9-inch touchscreens by Panasonic SFX. The MAGIC-V system is deploying throughout the fleet, with chosen Boeing 767-300ERs (Skyrecliner seat) and B787-8 (Shell Flat Neo seat) getting the IFE. Adopted by refurbished Boeing 777-300ERs (all plane) and chosen Boeing 767-300ER plane (together with these with Skyluxe seat) will get the MAGIC-V together with new seats in all lessons. The MAGIC-VI is put in on chosen Boeing 787-8s and 777-300s.
On most JAL worldwide flights, on-plane cameras can be found, both on the wings, the stomach or on the tail. When the plane is within the pushback; taxi; takeoff; ascent; descent; stacking; touchdown; and docking phases of flight, all TV’s within the cabin mechanically tune into the video digicam exterior the plane to supply “Pilot Imaginative and prescient” to the passengers. Nonetheless, new leisure methods don’t have them anymore
Skyward, the airline group’s inflight journal, reflecting the corporate motto of “Dream Skyward“. Previous to the merger with JAS, JAL’s inflight journal was known as Winds. All the JAL Group magazines are offered by JALUX.
In a promotion, between 1 June and 31 August 2006, all Government and First Class passengers could be supplied use of Nintendo DS Lites specifically manufactured for air journey, with the wi-fi capabilities eliminated to be able to conform with airline security requirements.
After a trial run at Handa airport, JAL introduced it’ll provide chosen passengers a VR expertise utilizing the Samsung Gear VR and the Samsung S8. Passengers will be capable of expertise specifically curated programming on Germany, Argentina, the Nagoya fireworks and extra packages at a later date.
Japan Airways presents meals on intercontinental routes, relying on the cabin class, vacation spot and flight size. Western and Japanese menu choices are usually supplied, together with seasonal menu choices different by vacation spot. The airline has labored with high-profile cooks, together with Fumiko Kono, Shinichi Sato, Koji Shimomura, Naoki Uchiyama, Chikara Yamada, Seiji Yamammoto and Hiroki Yoshitake within the creation of its menus and in 2016, launched a kids’s menu created by Kono, Yamada, Yamammoto, and Yosuke Suga.
Sakura Lounge, named after the Japanese phrase for cherry blossom, is Japan Airways’ signature lounge. As well as, the airline additionally operates the next worldwide, together with First Class Lounge, Sakura Lounge annex and JAL Lounge; and home lounges, together with Diamond Premier Lounge and JAL Lounge. Entry to the lounges rely upon the category of journey or the membership standing within the JAL Mileage Financial institution or JAL World Membership.
Former bus companies
Circa the 1990s, JAL beforehand operated buses from Frankfurt Airport to Düsseldorf to serve prospects in that German metropolis, in addition to buses from John F. Kennedy Airport in New York Metropolis to Fort Lee, New Jersey.
JAL Mileage Financial institution
Former JAL Mileage Financial institution emblem
JAL World Membership emblem
The Fly on Programme is the frequent flyer service standing programme and is split into 4 membership ranges, Crystal, Sapphire, JGC Premier and Diamond, based mostly on the member’s journey within the final calendar 12 months.
The JAL World Membership is an unique membership devoted to catering to JAL Group’s most skilled and invaluable vacationers.
Since September 2020, Japan Airways not use the time period “girls and gents” – to be inclusive for the Japanese LGBTIQ+ neighborhood and likewise preparing for the 2020 Summer time Olympics.
Incidents and accidents
In standard tradition
Japan Airways has been the main focus of a number of tv packages in Japan over time, most being dramas revolving round cabin attendants. Consideration Please was a drama in 1970 that adopted the story of a younger lady who joins JAL to be a cabin attendant whereas overcoming many difficulties. This present was remade in 2006 once more as Consideration Please starring Aya Ueto who joins a category of cabin attendant nominees and later graduates. A lot of the motion of the story of the 2006 collection takes place at JAL’s Haneda flight operations headquarters. The collection has had two specials because the unique, marking the principle character’s transition into JAL’s worldwide operations.
Through the 1980s, JAL was additionally the main focus of one other drama entitled Stewardess Monogatari which featured one other younger lady throughout coaching to be a JAL cabin attendant. Through the 1990s, JAL featured a number of commercials with celebrities, together with Janet Jackson who danced and sang to a backdrop of JAL 747s on rotation at LAX.
- “JO 7340.2J – Contractions – Together with Change 1” (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. 10 October 2019. p. 3-1-50. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- “Official stockholder info”. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- “Breaking Information – Cash”. The Straits Occasions. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Government Officers Company Info, Japan Airways
- Japan Airways Annual report 2016
- Picken, Stuart D. B. (2016). Historic Dictionary of Japanese Enterprise. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-4422-5589-0.
- “JAL – Historical past of Aircrafts”.
- “Historical past of JAL 1951–1960”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Rising Solar and Air”. Flight. Reed Enterprise Info. Four April 1952. pp. 420–421. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “Information from Japan”. Flight. Reed Enterprise Info. 13 March 1953. p. 341. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “Japanese Plans Introduced”. Flight. Reed Enterprise Info. 31 July 1953. p. 151. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “1953 timetable scan”.
- “Brevities”. Flight. Reed Enterprise Info. 19 February 1954. p. 221. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “JAL celebrates 50 years of worldwide flights”. Agence France-Presse. 2 February 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Schedule September 1, 2009 October 24, 2009 North America, Latin America, America, Canada, Mexico and Brazil” (PDF) (Press launch). Japan Airways. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 7 October 2009. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “JAL – Japan Air Traces”. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- “1955 timetable”.
- “1958 timetable”.
- “JAL – Japan Air Traces”. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- 国内初のジェット機展示へ 日航「富士号」、羽田の見学施設に. The Nikkei (in Japanese). 28 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- “December 1961 timetable scan”.
- “Historical past of JAL 1961–1970”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Japan Airways Firm, Ltd”. fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “World Airline Survey”. Flight Worldwide. Reed Enterprise Info. 15 April 1965. pp. 586–587. Retrieved 7 September 2009. “Head Workplace: Tokyo Bldg, 2-chome, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan”
- “Japan: Bitterness within the Air”. Time. Three September 1965. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Historical past of JAL 1971–1980”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Historical past of JAL 1981–1990”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- Preliminary route was NRT-ANC-JFK-SJU-VCP-GIG; in 1981 it turned NRT-ANC-MIA-VCP and in 1982 NRT-LAX-MIA-VCP. JL dropped Brazil for a number of years round 1990.
- “Bem Vindo: JAL to inaugurate New York-Sao Paulo flights”. Enterprise Wire. 20 September 1999. Archived from the unique on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- “Japan Airways America Area”. Japan Airways. Archived from the unique on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “Main Deregulation Gadgets Which the Ministry of Lands, Infrastructure and Transport Has Just lately Determined”. MLIT. Archived from the unique on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Historical past of JAL 1991–2000”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- Birtles, Philip (1998). Boeing 777, Jetliner for a New Century. Motorbooks Worldwide. pp. 13–16. ISBN 0-7603-0581-1.
- Belson, Ken (13 November 2001). “Japan Airways and Japan Air System Take Merger Transfer”. The New York Occasions. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Historical past of JAL 2004–”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “Japan Airways and Japan Air System Integration Progress Gross sales and Service Plans from April 1st 2004” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 7 January 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “JAL to merge home and worldwide operations subsequent 12 months”. Air Transport World. 6 October 2005. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- “JAL Resolution to Search OneWorld Membership” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
- “oneworld turns into ten of the world’s largest and greatest airways as Japan Airways, Malév and Royal Jordanian board” (Press launch). Oneworld. 1 April 2007. Archived from the unique on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
- “Deliberate Integration of Japan Asia Airways with JAL Worldwide” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 1 November 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- Negishi, Mayumi (14 September 2009). “Reuters: JAL to chop extra employees, abroad flights: experiences”. Reuters. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- “Japan Airways mulls slicing 5000 jobs in three years”. The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 25 August 2009. Retrieved Three January 2011.
- Sanchanta, Mariko; Takahashi, Yoshio (20 January 2010). “JAL Chapter Shakes Up Japan Inc”. The Wall Road Journal. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- “Japan Airline destiny in fingers of activity drive”. Thomson Reuters. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
- “JBankruptcy, ¥700 billion in public funds eyed for JAL”. The Japan Occasions. Eight January 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- “JAL headed for courtroom safety: report”. CBC Information. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- Sanchanta, Mariko; Takahashi, Yoshio (20 January 2010). “JAL opens painful new chapter”. Wall Road Journal. Archived from the unique on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- “TSE Record of Delisted Corporations”. Tokyo Inventory Change. 20 January 2010. Archived from the unique on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- 日航・稲盛氏、「大嫌い」からの出発. The Nikkei (in Japanese). 19 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- “Japan Airways Promotes Masaru Onishi to President”. Bloomberg. 27 January 2010. Archived from the unique on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
anna.aero. “ANA and JAL each report large load issue enchancment on worldwide companies in 2010”. anna.aero Airline Information. Retrieved Four August 2010.
- “Report: JAL to slash greater than 19,000 jobs by March 2015”. ATW On-line. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- “JAL mulling capital, enterprise tie-up with Delta Air Traces: sources”. Kyodo Information. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
- “JAL in talks to strengthen ties with American Airways”. Kyodo Information. 13 September 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
- “RTTNews – Japan Airways in Talks With American Air As Delta Negotiations Proceed – Reviews”. RTT Information. 13 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Chakravorty, Jui (15 September 2009). “Air France-KLM in talks to put money into JAL-source”. Reuters.
- Woelfel, Joseph (18 September 2009). “Oneworld companions could workforce up on JAL provide”. TheStreet.com. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- “BA in talks with JAL to remain in Oneworld”. Reuters. 18 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- “American Air CEO Sees ‘Tepid” Progress, On 3Q Loss”. DowJonesNewswires. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- “American Airways chief urges JAL to not fly the Oneworld coop”. Dallas Information. 9 November 2009. Archived from the unique on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- Sumikawa, Takuya (Four January 2010). “JAL boss opposes chapter repair”. Asahi Shimbun. Japan. Archived from the unique on Four January 2010. Retrieved Four January 2010.
- “JAL, Delta seen forming enterprise ties”. Asian Information Community. 5 January 2010. Archived from the unique on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010.CS1 maint: unfit url (hyperlink)
- “Japan Airways in Talks With American Air As Delta Negotiations Proceed – Reviews”. Wall Road Journal. 13 September 2009. Retrieved Three January 2011.
- Reed, Ted (Four January 2010). “AMR: We’re Not Shedding Japan Air Traces Deal”. TheStreet.com. Retrieved Four January 2010.
- Sanchata, Mariko (7 January 2010). “AMR Boosts JAL Supply”. Wall Road Journal. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- “JAL dumps AA, defects to Delta, SkyTeam”. eTurbo Information. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- Sanchanta, Mariko; Takahashi, Yoshio (1 February 2010). “JAL to Resolve on Associate Quickly”. The Wall Road Journal. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Bavdek, Maureen (7 February 2010). “JAL to stick with American, finish Delta talks”. Reuters. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- “Japan Airways and American Airways Strengthen Partnership and Apply for Approval of Antitrust Immunity” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- “Japan turnaround physique picks underwriters for JAL stake sale”. Reuters. 15 July 2011.
- “Japan Airways plans to relist shares in Tokyo”. BBC. 6 January 2012.
- “Japan Airways and American Airways Announce Joint Enterprise Advantages for Trans-Pacific Shoppers – Yahoo! Finance”. Archived from the unique on 17 January 2011.
-  Archived 7 July 2011 on the Wayback Machine
- “British Airways, JAL plan joint enterprise”. Reuters. Eight February 2012.
- “Finnair to Tighten British Airways-Japan Airways Tie-Up”. Bloomberg. 1 July 2013.
- JALグループ情報 (in Japanese). Japan Airways. Retrieved 19 Could 2016.
- “Annual Report 2009” (PDF). Japan Airways. 2009. p. 51. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Company Profile”. JALUX Inc. Archived from the unique on 21 March 2006. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Our enterprise”. JALUX Inc. Archived from the unique on 28 August 2009. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Re: Discover of Convening of 2nd Annual Common Assembly of Shareholders” (PDF). Japan Airways. Eight June 2004. p. 10. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “The termination of Giant & Heavy service utilizing WOW community” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 28 March 2005. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Annual Report 2009” (PDF). Japan Airways. 2009. p. 2. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Announcement of Change in Commerce Title.” Japan Airways. 28 March 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2011.
- 商号変更のお知らせ (in Japanese). Japan Airways. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- “Firm Profile.” Japan Airways. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “Head Workplace 4–11, Higashi-Shinagawa 2-chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8605, Japan” – Japanese deal with: “東京都品川区東品川二丁目4番11号 野村不動産天王洲ビル“
- “High Archived 29 December 2011 on the Wayback Machine.” Nomura Fudosan Tennozu Constructing. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “Current Initiatives.” Kajima Company. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “JAL SELL TOKYO H.Q. BUILDING TO NOMURA REAL ESTATE.” Japan Airways. 2004. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “Company Profile.” JALPAK. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “Head Workplace Nomurafudousan Tennouzu Bldg., 2-4-11 Higashishinagawa Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan 140-8658”
- “Contact Us Archived 26 January 2013 at Archive.right this moment.” JAL Aero-Consulting. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “Nomura Fudosan Tennozu Constructing 18F 2-4-11 Higashi Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo” – Map Archived 26 April 2012 on the Wayback Machine
- “Resort profile Archived 2 January 2012 on the Wayback Machine.” Resort Nikko Alivila. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “JAL Lodges Co., Ltd.” and “2-4-11 Higashi Shinagawa, Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo, Japan 140-0002 (JAL Bldg. 13F)”
- “Buyer Service Archived 1 January 2012 on the Wayback Machine.” American Airways Japan. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “American Airways Japan Workplace Tackle: 2-4-11, Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 140-0002”
- “1951–1960.” Japan Airways. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “Full-Member of The Funding Trusts Affiliation, Japan.” The Funding Trusts Affiliation, Japan. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “(Tokyo Constructing) 7–3, Marunouchi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo “
- “Descent into Japan Airways Chapter.” Yomiuri Shimbun. Sunday Four January 2010. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “JAL 1991–2000.” Japan Airways. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “Historical past of JAL 2001–2004.” Japan Airways. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- “Historical past of JAL 2001–2004.” (Japanese) Japan Airways. Retrieved on 14 December 2011. “日本航空システム(本社：東京都港区港南2-15-1“
- “Company Profile.” JALUX. 21 March 2006. Retrieved on 6 December 2011. “Head Workplace JAL Constructing, 2-4-11 Higashi Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo”
- “Discover of Workplace Relocation.” Jalux. Retrieved on 6 December 2011.
- Huff, Jerry (2011). Notes on Creation of Tsurumaru Brand. unpublished: self. p. 3.
- “The New JAL Group Launches a New Search for the 21st Century THE ARC OF THE SUN” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 18 September 2002. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- “Annual Report 1999” (PDF). Japan Airways. 1999. p. 20. Archived from the unique (PDF) on Three March 2016. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- “JALグループの新しいロゴマークの採用について.” Japan Airways. 19 January 2011. Entry date 2011-01-19.
- JALで行く東京ディズニーリゾー ト (in Japanese). Japan Airways. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- “Reso’cha (JAL Plane Assortment)”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- “First JAL plane with particular oneworld livery makes debut flight” (Press launch). Oneworld. 16 April 2007. Archived from the unique on 23 Could 2007. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- “Photos of JA8941”. Airliners.web. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- “JA731J”. planespotters. March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- “JAL Eco Jet to Elevate Consciousness of World Atmosphere” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 22 April 2008. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- “JA8984”. planespotters. December 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- “JA734J”. planespotters. March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- “JAL × Kobukuro Collaboration”. Japan Airways. Archived from the unique on 27 June 2009. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- 「ＪＡＬ×コブクロ・ジェット」のデザインを決定し運航開始！JALマイレージバンク ＪＡＬ×KOBUKUROカードも誕生！ (Press launch) (in Japanese). Japan Airways. 29 July 2009. Retrieved Four September 2009.
- 西村, 綾乃 (30 July 2009). コブクロ：２人が描かれたジェット機が登場 格納庫で記念ライブ. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved 2 August 2009.
- 特別塗装機「JAL 嵐JET」が就航！ (Press launch) (in Japanese). Japan Airways. Four September 2010. Retrieved Four September 2010.
- “JA248J”. planespotters. March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- “JAL 1st ‘Tokyo 2020, Fly For It!’ Olympics jet”. Airport Webcams (Twitter). Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- “JAL、2020ジェット2号機が11日就航”. Aviation Wire Japan. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Adams, Sean; Morioka, Noreen; Stone, Terry (2004). Brand Design Workbook: A Fingers-on Information to Creating Logos. Rockport Publishers. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-59253-032-8.
- “JAL Group Re-establishes Identification with Company Coverage and Brand Change.” Japan Airways. 19 January 2011. Retrieved on 19 January 2011.
- “日本航空の新ロゴ .” これ、誰がデザインしたの? (in Japanese). 16 Could 2011. Retrieved on Three February 2020.
- “Variety of routes”. jal.com. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Firm Profile – Flight”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “Operation Information”. jal.com. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Annual Report 2009” (PDF). Japan Airways. 2009. pp. 14, 16. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “Profile on Japan Airways”. CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the unique on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- “For a CodeShare Flight”. Japan Airways.
- “JAL Group – PRESS RELEASES – Aeroflot and Japan Airways Agree on Codeshare Partnership”. press.jal.co.jp. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “JAL Group – PRESS RELEASES – Japan Airways and Aircalin announce Codeshare Settlement”. 12 September 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Codeshare Flights with Amakusa Airways – JAL Home Flights”. jal.co.jp. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Codeshare Flights with Fuji Dream Airways – JAL Home Flights”. jal.co.jp. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Garuda expands US routes with Japan Airways code-share deal”. Nikkei Asian Assessment.
- “Japan Airways Broadcasts Freighter Codeshare Settlement with Kalitta Air”. Japan Airways (Press launch). 1 August 2019.
- “JAL – Japan Airways resumes cargo ops by means of a codeshare”. Ch-Aviation. 7 August 2019.
- “JAL Group – PRESS RELEASES – Japan Airways and MIAT Mongolian Airways Agree on Codeshare Partnership Efficient March 31, 2020”. press.jal.co.jp. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Airline Routes”. Air Transport World. 30 June 2014. Archived from the unique on 30 June 2014.
Japan Airways and Qatar Airways, each members of oneworld, started codesharing on Qatar operated flights between Doha and Tokyo Haneda. That is along with JAL’s codeshare on Qatar flights between Tokyo Narita and Doha, in addition to between Osaka KIX and Doha from final Three Dec..
- “JAL Group – PRESS RELEASES – Royal Brunei Airways and Japan Airways Agree on Codeshare Settlement”. press.jal.co.jp. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “JAL Group – PRESS RELEASES – Japan Airways Enhances Worldwide Community in China by Signing Codeshare Settlement with Shanghai Airways”. press.jal.co.jp. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- Hofmann, Kurt (13 April 2018). “JAL, Russia’s S7 Airways to develop codeshare settlement”. Air Transport World. Archived from the unique on 5 Could 2018.
- “JAL / Vietjet Air plans codeshare service from late-Oct 2018”. Routesonline. 23 October 2018.
- “JAL Group – PRESS RELEASES – Japan Airways and Vistara enter Codeshare Partnership”. press.jal.co.jp. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Japan Airways and American Airways Joint Service”. jal.co.jp. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Collectively providing you extra between Europe and Japan”. jal.co.jp. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- Collectively To Japan finnair.com. Retrieved 2018-05-15.
- “JAL and Malaysia Airways obtain go-ahead for ‘three way partnership‘“. Nikkei Asian Assessment. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- “Japan Airways Fleet Particulars and Historical past”. www.planespotters.web. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- “World Airliner Census 2017”. Flight Worldwide. 15 August 2017.
- “Home plane and seat configurations”. Japan Airways.
- “Worldwide plane and seat configurations”. Japan Airways.
- “AirbusA350-900 (359) / Aircrafts [sic] and seats”. www.jal.co.jp. Retrieved 17 Could 2019.
- “Airbus and Japan Airways signal their first ever order”. Japan Airways.
- “Airbus Orders and Deliveries” (Press launch). Airbus. Eight June 2018.
- “Airline Perception: Japan Airways”. www.blueswandaily.com. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Toh, Mavis (23 January 2017). “Mitsubishi delays MRJ deliveries by two years”. Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 17 Could 2019.
- Adrian Schofield (6 November 2017). “Japan Airways Considers Fleet-Plan Choices”. Aviation Week Community.
- “Due to supersonic flight, we might be able to cross the Atlantic in half the time”. Futurism.
- “Historical past of Plane”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- “Japan Airways Fleet Particulars and Historical past”. Planespotters.web. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- “World Airline Listing – Japan Air Traces”. Flight Worldwide. Reed Enterprise Info. 20 March 1975. p. 490. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- Phillips, Edward H. (1992). Beechcraft: Pursuit of Perfection; A Historical past of Beechcraft Airplanes. Eagan, Minnesota: Flying Books. p. 27. ISBN 0-911139-11-7.
- “JAL To Introduce State-of-the Artwork First Class Suite & Enterprise Class Seat” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 10 June 2008. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- Logarta, Margie (20 August 2010). “JAL places premium seat merchandise on Tokyo-Jakarta route”. Asia Pacific Enterprise Traveller. Archived from the unique on 2 April 2016. Retrieved Four June 2012.
- “JAL Do It Once more And Buck The Development With Their 787”. TheDesignAir. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- “Seats (JAL Enterprise Class) – JAL Worldwide Flights”. www.jal.co.jp. Retrieved Three July 2018.
- “JAL to Improve Enterprise Class Seat on Its Worldwide Boeing 777-200ER” (Press launch). 22 March 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- “In-Flight Service – Worldwide”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- “JAL Skysleeper Solo”. Japan Airways. Archived from the unique on Four September 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- “JAL Shell Flat Seat”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- “JAL Begins Introducing Premium Financial system Class on Worldwide Routes” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 10 October 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- “JAL Sky Shell Seat”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- “In-Flight Service – Home”. Japan Airways. Archived from the unique on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- “First Class – Define of Seats”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- “Class J – Seat Description”. Japan Airways. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- 日航、国内線全席革張りシートに 14年５月から. The Nikkei (in Japanese). 28 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- “JAL Group Renews In-flight Leisure, Names it [New SkyEntertainment JAL Mooove!]” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- “JAL Doubles MAGIC III Inflight Leisure Programming” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 12 November 2007. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Worldwide In-Flight Companies – Leisure”. Japan Airways. Archived from the unique on Four December 2003. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- “Japan Airways Upgrades Boeing 787-Eight Inside”. 12 November 2014. Retrieved Four February 2017.
- Jet, Johnny (7 December 2005). “The place’s Johnny Jet?”. JohnnyJet.com. Archived from the unique on 5 January 2012. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “New In-flight Journal for the JAL Group SKYWARD to debut in April 2003” (Press launch). Japan Airways. 18 November 2002. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Company Profile – Our Enterprise”. JALUX Inc. Archived from the unique on 28 August 2009. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Japan Airways to supply Nintendo DS Lite in-flight”. Newlaunches.com. 9 June 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- Shah, Dhiram (7 September 2017). “Japan Airways is attempting out Immersive digital actuality headsets”. Luxurylaunches.
- Heger, Monica (11 June 2008). “There may be such a factor as an excellent airline meal”. NBC Information. Retrieved Four July 2009.
- “JAL Improves Meal Service in Enterprise Class”. Asiatraveltips.com. 26 August 2005. Retrieved Four July 2009.
- Webb, Sally (14 December 2014). “Airline meals: Cooks striving to enhance mile excessive meals”. Stuff. Wellington, New Zealand: Fairfax Media New Zealand Restricted. Retrieved 21 November 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
- “JAL introduces new youngster meal menus developed by its star cooks”. eTN World Journey Information. 21 April 2016. Archived from the unique on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- Albright, John Brannon (10 October 1982). “Sensible Traveler Not-so-exclusive Lounges”. The New York Occasions. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Worldwide Flights Lounge Service”. Japan Airways. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Home Flights Lounge Service”. Japan Airways. Retrieved Three September 2009.
- “Make clean connections at Frankfurt Airport while you use our “JAL EXPRESS” airport bus to or from Dusseldorf.” Japan Airways. Four January 1997. Retrieved on 26 July 2018.
- “For clean entry to and from J.F.Okay. Airport, journey our “JAL Categorical Bus” .” Japan Airways. Four January 1997. Retrieved on 26 July 2018.
- “How JMB Works”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- “Flight Mileage”. Japan Airways. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- 日本航空学園「アテンションプリーズ」-マイタウン山梨 (in Japanese). Asahi. Retrieved Four July 2009.[dead link]
- ““Stewardess monogatari” (1983)”. IMDb.com. Retrieved Four July 2009.
- Van Buskirk, Eliot (30 October 2007). “Present in Translation: American Popstars in Japanese Advertisements”. Wired. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved Four July 2009.