Flag service airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Iran Air, branded as The Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: هواپیمايی جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎, romanized: Havâpeymâyiye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân), is the flag service of Iran and the oldest airline within the Center East and second oldest in Asia, which is headquartered at Mehrabad Airport in Tehran. As of 2018, it operates scheduled companies to 71 locations in Asia and Europe. Iran Air’s important bases are Imam Khomeini Worldwide Airport and Mehrabad Airport, each located in Tehran, capital of Iran.
Domestically, Iran Air is often often known as Homa,[16] which is the title of a legendary Persian griffin,[17] and likewise the acronym of Iran Nationwide Airways within the Persian language. The airline’s cargo division, Iran Air Cargo, operates scheduled companies internationally utilizing one cargo plane.[10][18][13]

Historical past[edit]

Early years[edit]

Iranian Airways was based in Could 1944 by Reza Afshar and Gholam Ebtehaj.[6]Submit-war, its first passenger flight was from Tehran to Mashhad,[5] adopted by a Tehran-Esfahan-Shiraz-Bushehr-Abadan-Ahwaz service. In 1946 the airline established service to Cairo, Baghdad and Tel Aviv, and in April 1947, to Paris.[6] Between 1945 and 1962, the airline grew to become a significant home service, additionally working some worldwide flights to Europe every week. The fleet consisted of Douglas DC-3s initially, supplemented by Douglas DC-Four and Vickers Viscount plane afterward.[5]

In 1954, the privately owned airline Persian Air Providers (PAS) was established. PAS initially operated solely freight companies, adopted by passenger operations between Tehran and different main cities in Iran.[5] In 1960, PAS initiated passenger service to a number of European locations, together with Geneva, Paris, Brussels and London, utilizing Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-7 plane leased from Sabena.[19]

Iranian Airways was nationalized in 1961.[6] On 24 February 1961, Iranian Airways and PAS merged to kind the Iran Nationwide Airways Company (HOMA), often known as Iran Air, utilizing the homa chicken as a logo.[5] HOMA was a public sector enterprise that mixed the 2 predecessor air carriers. Among the many plane used have been Avro Yorks, Douglas DC-3s, Douglas DC-6s and Vickers Viscounts.[6] The service grew to become a full member of the Worldwide Air Transport Affiliation (IATA) in 1964. It was the launch buyer for the Boeing 747SP.[5][20]

Rise to international prominence[edit]

In 1965, Iran Air took supply of its first jet plane, the Boeing 707 and the Boeing 727-100, adopted by the Boeing 737-200 in 1971, the stretched Boeing 727-200 in 1974 and three variants of Boeing 747 (747-100, −200 and SP), beginning in 1978–1979. By the mid-1970s, Iran Air was serving cities in Europe with continuous and one-stop flights, together with over 30 flights per week to London alone.

On 29 Could 1971, the Tehran to New York Metropolis route was inaugurated, utilizing Boeing 707s making a stop-over at London Heathrow Airport. Shortly thereafter, the route was upgraded to a continuous flight utilizing Boeing 747SPs, making Iran Air the second Center Japanese service (after El Al), to supply continuous service to New York. With this flight, Iran Air set a brand new world file in time and distance for a continuous, scheduled long-haul flight (12 hours and 15 minutes, 9,867 km – 6,131 mi – 5,328 nm). In 1978, the airline acquired six Airbus A300 plane to be used on its home trunk and busy regional routes. By the tip of that 12 months, Iran Air was serving 31 worldwide locations stretching from New York Metropolis to Beijing and Tokyo. Plans have been made to supply direct companies to Los Angeles and to Sydney, for which the airline’s lengthy vary Boeing 747SP plane have been perfect. This could have allowed Iran Air to make use of Tehran as a halfway level between East and West, due to its favorable geographical location. Such plans have been by no means realized.

By the late 1970s, Iran Air was the quickest rising airline on this planet and one of the vital worthwhile. By 1976, Iran Air was ranked second solely to Qantas, because the world’s most secure airline, having been accident free for not less than ten consecutive years. Though each airways have been accident free, Iran Air got here second solely due to fewer operational hours flown in comparison with Qantas. Previous to this rating, a deadly accident had occurred on 25 December 1952, by which 27 of the 29 passengers on board perished when their Douglas DC-Three crashed on touchdown.

Lt. Gen. Ali-Mohammad Khademi was the final supervisor of Iran Air from 1962 to 1978.[21]

The Iranian Revolution[edit]

Because of financial sanctions towards Iran, Iran Air was unable to broaden or change its fleet.[22] The final time Iran Air was delivered brand-new Western plane previous to the 2016 lifting of nuclear-related sanctions was in 1994 when it obtained two Airbus A300-B4s in compensation for the downing of Iran Air Flight 655 by an American cruiser in 1988.[23][24]
In 2001, Iran Air bought 6 second-hand Airbus A300s from Turkey, however solely after two years, all 6 of them ended up grounded at airports in Tehran, Mashhad and Moscow. This triggered vital controversy in Iran the place officers cited GE engine design flaw and subsequent overheating as the rationale for grounding the planes. Certainly one of these 6 planes was later confirmed to have returned to service by 2010.[25][26]

Previous to the separation of Iran Air Excursions from Iran Air in 2011, Russian-made Tupolev Tu-154s fashioned the spine of the previous’s fleet. Nevertheless, a number of successive disasters involving this aircraft in the end led to a 2011 blanket ban on its operations inside Iranian airways, together with Iran Air Excursions.[27][28] The Tu-154 fleet was regularly changed with MD-83s over the course of some months.[29]

In keeping with Iran’s Deputy Minister of Roads and City Devopment, Iran at the moment has greater than 100 planes, a few of them owned by Iran Air, grounded as a result of lack of entry to new elements and technical experience in the course of the sanctions period.[30]

The extended time frame that Iran Air was underneath worldwide sanctions and barred from buying spare elements and new planes led to a dramatic rise in its common fleet age and plunging security file, to the extent the place it grew to become broadly often known as one of many worst airways on this planet by way of air security file.[31][32][33] As of March 2017, Iran Air’s common fleet age stands at 24.1 years, although this determine is about to enhance by means of addition of latest deliveries.[34]

Iran Air’s extraordinarily subpar on-time efficiency, amongst these of most different Iranian airways, has led to public anger and frustration, usually inciting protests within the type of violent confrontations with the airline staff or airplane sit-ins for a lot of hours after a severely-delayed flight has lastly landed. Officers routinely attribute the delays to the financial sanctions, though not less than one pro-revolutionary ideologue has cited “inefficiency and mismanagement” because the chief explanation for this subject.[35]

EU ban and refueling points[edit]

On 5 July 2010, an aviation official of Iran accused the U.Okay., Germany and the United Arab Emirates of refusing to refuel Iranian passenger jets.[36] This transfer adopted unilateral sanctions imposed by the US over the nuclear weapons dispute. Iran Air and Mahan Air each claimed to have been denied refuelling. A spokeswoman for Abu Dhabi Airports Firm (ADAC) stated {that a} contract was in place to refuel Iranian passenger flights and ADAC would proceed to take action. A spokesperson for the UK Civil Aviation Authority stated that it was the only resolution of impartial suppliers if plane have been to be refuelled or not. Germany’s Transport Ministry stated the refuelling of Iranian plane was not banned underneath EU or UN sanctions however didn’t say whether or not any impartial refuellers have been denying refuelling.[37] Later within the day, Dubai Airport revealed that it continued to refuel Iranian passengers flights out and in of Dubai.[38] The following day, a spokesperson for Iran stated that no such limitation had been imposed.[39]

On 6 July 2010, it was introduced that the European Fee would ban all of Iran Air’s Airbus A320, Boeing 727 and Boeing 747 fleet from the EU over security issues.[40][41] This transfer got here as a significant blow to Iran Air, limiting flights to Europe with its personal plane.

In 2012, the EU re-allowed the refuelling of Iran Air plane at secondary European airports similar to Ljubljana and Budapest, in an effort to retain the refuelling contracts inside the EU, moderately than letting them go to Serbia or later Belarus and Ukraine.[42][43]

In January 2012, Iran Air’s flights to and from London Heathrow operated with a gasoline cease at Manston Airport in Kent. Nevertheless, the airport introduced in December 2011 that this association was to finish and it might now not refuel the corporate’s plane. This announcement swiftly adopted the closure of Iran’s embassy in London because the consequence of the ransacking of the British embassy in Tehran. The airport burdened that it had not breached any commerce agreements, because it had no connections with the USA.[44]

Lifting of sanctions and modernization plans[edit]

The arrival of Iran Air’s first Airbus A321

Iran Air Airbus A330 EP-IJA earlier than touchdown at Tehran THR with mount Damavand in view

In anticipation of a deal being reached for the lifting of sanctions, the chairman of Iran Air, Farhad Parvaresh, acknowledged that the airline would then search to acquire not less than 100 wide-body and short-haul jets.[57]

On Friday 15 January 2016 US president Barack Obama approved his secretary of state, John Kerry, to carry the sanctions on Iran civil aviation.[58] Following Iran’s implementation of the Joint Complete Plan of Motion (JCPOA) on 16 January 2016, all sanctions on Iran civil aviation have been lifted. In consequence, Iranian airways, together with Iran Air, have been granted permission to buy new civil plane from any producer in addition to to refuel in any respect European airports, besides for 2 Swedish locations, Stockholm and Gothenburg, as a result of gasoline provider BP nonetheless refusing to offer gasoline to the Iranian carriers.[59][60]

On 24 January 2016 Tehran hosted the CAPA Iran Aviation Summit organised by CAPA – Centre for Aviation with a view to convey each Iranian and worldwide aviation authorities collectively for contemplating growth plans for Iran’s aviation trade. CAPA put the scale of Iran’s economic system someplace between these of Turkey and Australia, whose business airline fleets are within the order of 500-600 plane.[61] Bombardier introduced its regional fashions in the course of the CAPA summit in Tehran.
[62] In an announcement, Mr. Parvaresh introduced that his airline anticipated to spend some 3-5 billion US {dollars} buying regional plane from producers Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier and Embraer.[63]

Second sanctions[edit]

On eight Could 2018, following US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal, and as a part of the reinstatement of the US sanctions towards Iran lifted in 2015, US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin introduced the choice to revoke all Iran gross sales licenses already granted to aircraft producers Boeing and Airbus after a 90-day interval.[64]

It was introduced that Iran Air needed to cancel the order for Boeing plane attributable to President Trump’s resolution to reimpose sanctions towards Iran, regardless of this it has been introduced that Iran Air will nonetheless be receiving ATR plane. It has not but been introduced if Airbus plane will nonetheless be delivered. Any plane being delivered to Iran Air should be delivered inside a 90 to 180 day interval earlier than the sanctions start.

Whereas members of the Trump administration have suggested European firms to cease doing enterprise with Iran now, Federica Mogherini stated the European goal was “sustaining and deepening financial relations with Iran. “The technical consultants plan to suggest methods to avert disruptions in air, sea and land transport from and to Iran and hold channels open for “efficient banking transactions.”[65]

Onboard restrictions[edit]

Meals and drinks[edit]

Iran Air is without doubt one of the few airways on this planet that, pursuant to the Sharia, doesn’t serve alcoholic drinks on any of its flights.[66][67] Furthermore, there is no such thing as a selection of non-Halal meals alternatives, similar to these containing pork, on Iran Air’s menu.[68][69]

Locations[edit]

Iran Air serves locations in Iran, Asia, the Center East and Europe.

Pilgrims and Hajj[edit]

Till 2016, Hajj constitution operations fashioned a significant a part of Iran Air’s annual actions. Yearly, tens of hundreds of pilgrims flew from main cities in Iran to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia’s air gateway to Mecca, to participate in pilgrimage ceremonies. In 2016, attributable to escalating tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia, all Hajj flights from Iran have been suspended indefinitely.[70] These flights resumed from 2017.[71][72]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Iran Air has codeshare agreements with the next airways:[73]

Present fleet[edit]

As of January 2020, the Iran Air fleet consists of the next plane, a number of of which is perhaps saved or taken into service on brief discover:[74]


Future fleet plans[edit]

Airbus[edit]

In January 2016 Iran Air signed an settlement for 118 Airbus plane, consisting of a number of kinds of the producer’s twin-engine plane and 12 A380s. Nevertheless, the order for the A380s have been later cancelled.[22][78][79] On 22 December 2016, Airbus introduced a agency deal for 100 plane comprising 46 Airbus A320 /A320neo household plane; 16 A350s, and 38 A330s /A330neos.[80][81] In January 2017, Airbus started the supply course of beginning with an A321 adopted by 2 A330-200s, all initially ordered by and constructed for Avianca however by no means delivered.[81][76][82][83][84]

In January 2018, the gross sales chief of Airbus signalled that the supply of the orders positioned by Iran Air may deviate from the unique schedule attributable to financing and pre-payment obstacles.[85]

ATR[edit]

On 1 February 2016, Iran Air signed an settlement with plane producer ATR, masking an order of twenty ATR 72-600 turboprop plane plus choices for twenty extra.[86][87] Iran Air intends to make use of the ATR 72s as a part of its technique to broaden its home market attain and to offer service to the smaller airports which are situated in much less populated cities of Iran. Deliveries have been deliberate to start in early 2017 however have been delayed attributable to a stall in talks with the Canadian producer of ATR energy crops, Pratt & Whitney Canada, over after-sales assist and upkeep for the engines.[88] Within the occasion, the primary 4 plane have been delivered in a single convoy on 16 Could 2017.[89] In April 2019, the US Workplace of International Property Management (OFAC) issued a two-year licence to ATR to permit it to produce spare elements and different necessities to maintain the fleet of 13 ATR 72-600s in operation. Nevertheless, the remaining 7 ATR 72-600s from the 2016 order stay sanctioned and in storage.[90]

Boeing[edit]

In June 2016, Iran Air formally introduced that it was in talks with Boeing for a doable order “shut in dimension to the 118 Airbus plane settlement”.[91] On 21 June 2016 Boeing introduced it has signed a tentative settlement to promote jetliners to Iran, in what could be one of many Islamic Republic’s greatest offers with a U.S. producer since commerce sanctions on Tehran have been eased.[92] On 11 December 2016, Boeing introduced a provisional order by Iran Air for eighty plane, topic to “contingencies [being] cleared”; the order includes 50 737 MAX 8s, 15 777-300ERs and 15 777-9s.[93]

In April 2018, Boeing CEO introduced the deferral of Iran Air deliveries till not less than 2019, citing
compliance with US authorities course of.[94]

In June 2018, Boeing introduced it will be unable to ship any planes to Iranian airways as a result of sanctions.[95]

Former fleet[edit]

Iran Air has beforehand operated the next plane:


Concorde order[edit]

On eight October 1972, Iran Air positioned an order with British Plane Company for 2 Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde supersonic jets plus an choice for one, rendering it the final airline to put Concorde orders for business use.[98] Nevertheless, Iran Air – having had briefly chartered one Concorde jet on flights between Tehran and Paris – cancelled these orders in April 1980.[99]

Former subsidiaries[edit]

Iran Air Excursions[edit]

Iran Air Excursions was based in 1973 as an entirely owned subsidiary of Iran Air, specializing in constitution flights and tourism.[100] In 2011, the corporate was bought by Hesayar Cooperative Firm, itself a subsidiary of the Ministry of Protection and Armed Forces Logistics. Nevertheless, Hesayar failed to satisfy its monetary commitments and the airline promptly returned to non-public arms in 2016.[101]

Homa Resort Group[edit]

Homa Resort Group was based in 1979 by the Authorities of Iran after it accomplished a nationalization of the resort trade. As of 2016, it was owned by Iran’s Social Safety Group.[102]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Overview[edit]

Earlier than the 2 firms merged in 1962 to kind Iran Air, Iranian Airways and Persian Air Providers had a number of plane hull losses. Iranian Airways misplaced six Douglas DC-3s in crashes and a fireplace between 1949 and 1959;[103][104][105][106][107][108] and one in every of its Douglas DC-4s was shot down in 1961;[109] whereas Persian Air Providers misplaced three Avro Yorks in crashes and a upkeep accident between 1955 and 1959.[110][111][112] Since 1962, Iran Air has had greater than a dozen plane hull losses in crashes and the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655; the airline has additionally skilled twenty hijacking incidents on its plane.[113]

Notable cases[edit]

  • On 14 September 1950, an Iranian Airways Douglas DC-3, registration EP-AAG, certain for Saudi Arabia, crashed shortly after taking off from Tehran Mehrabad Worldwide Airport. The 9 folks on board, all staff of the airline, have been killed.[104]
  • On 25 December 1952, an Iranian Airways Douglas DC-Three with twenty-one passengers and a crew of 4 on board crashed whereas on method to Tehran airport. There was one survivor.[106]
  • On the night of 21 January 1980, a Boeing 727-100 working as Iran Air Flight 291 hit excessive floor north of Tehran in a snowstorm throughout its touchdown method to Tehran’s Mehrabad Airport, after the pilot did not observe the proper path to the runway. All 128 passengers and crew on board have been killed.[114]
  • On Three July 1988, Iran Air Flight 655 was flying over the Persian Gulf on its approach to Dubai from Bandar Abbas. In keeping with the U.S. model of occasions, the crew of the US Navy cruiser USS Vincennes mistook the airliner for an Iranian Air Pressure Grumman F-14 Tomcat jet fighter and the cruiser shot the airliner down with a missile, killing all 16 crew and 274 passengers. Iran maintains it was an intentional act of barbarism.[115]
  • On 9 June 1996 a Boeing 727–200 on a pilot coaching flight landed on its stomach at Tehran’s Mehrabad Airport on its fifteenth touch-and-go touchdown in a collection, after the crew forgot to increase the touchdown gear. The plane slid for greater than 2 kilometres (1.2 mi; 2,200 yd) alongside the runway; as a substitute of permitting the plane to cease the crew lifted it off once more and it circled the airport to return for a touchdown with the gear prolonged. Whereas circling, a fireplace broke out within the plane’s rear fuselage, damaging its flight management programs. Because the plane neared the bottom it rolled left; the wing hit the bottom and the plane crashed in a subject, killing 4 of the seven crewmembers on board.[116]
  • On 2 January 2008, Iran Air Fokker 100 EP-IDB carrying 100 passengers skidded off the runway after its wing caught fireplace, when taking off for a home flight to Shiraz Worldwide Airport from Mehrabad Airport. Nobody was injured within the accident, which occurred amid heavy snowfall on the airport.[117]
  • On 18 November 2009, Iran Air Fokker 100 EP-CFO suffered an undercarriage malfunction on take-off from Isfahan Worldwide Airport. The plane was on a flight to Mehrabad Airport, Tehran when the undercarriage did not retract. The plane landed at Isfahan however was considerably broken when the left important gear collapsed. There have been no casualties on this occasion.[118]
  • On 15 January 2010, Iran Air Fokker 100 EP-IDA, working Flight 223 was considerably broken when the nostril gear collapsed after touchdown at Isfahan Worldwide Airport. There have been no casualties on this accident.[119]
  • On 9 January 2011 Iran Air Flight 277, a Boeing 727-200 (registration: EP-IRP) originating from Tehran, crashed close to its vacation spot metropolis of Orumiyeh, 740 kilometres (460 mi) northwest of Tehran, throughout an tried go-around in poor climate. It was carrying 105 folks, of whom not less than 77 have been killed.[120]
  • On 18 October 2011 a Boeing 727-200 (registration: EP-IRR) working a flight from Moscow as Flight 742 landed with the nostril touchdown gear jammed within the retracted place at Mehrabad Worldwide Airport. No person was damage within the accident.[121]
  • On 19 March 2019 a Fokker 100 (registration: EP-IDG) had an emergency touchdown with its important touchdown gear not prolonged at Mehrabad airport. No person was damage within the accident.

See additionally[edit]

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