An integral bodywork MCI 102DL3, the commonest intercity bus owned by Greyhound Traces, the biggest supplier of intercity bus service in North America. Greyhound now not operates the 102DL3 on this configuration.

Two Oxford Tube physique on chassis automobiles on the Buckingham Palace Street terminus

An intercity bus service (North American English) or intercity coach service (British English and Commonwealth English), additionally referred to as a long-distance, specific, over-the-road, industrial, long-haul, freeway, or Greyhound bus or coach service, is a public transport service utilizing coaches to hold passengers important distances between totally different cities, cities, or different populated areas. In contrast to a transit bus service, which has frequent stops all through a metropolis or city, an intercity bus service typically has a single cease at one location in or close to a metropolis, and travels lengthy distances with out stopping in any respect. Intercity bus companies could also be operated by authorities businesses or non-public trade, for revenue and never for revenue.[1] Intercity coach journey can serve areas or nations with no prepare companies, or could also be set as much as compete with trains by offering a extra versatile or cheaper various.

Intercity bus companies are of prime significance in evenly populated rural areas that usually have little or no public transportation.[2]

Intercity bus companies are certainly one of 4 frequent transport strategies between cities, not all of which can be found in every single place. The others are by airliner, prepare, and personal vehicle.[3]

Historical past[edit]

Stagecoaches[edit]

Behind time, nameless engraving of a stagecoach in England.

The primary intercity scheduled transport service was referred to as the stagecoach and originated within the 17th century. Crude coaches have been being constructed from the 16th century in England, however with out suspension, these coaches achieved very low speeds on the poor high quality rutted roads of the time. By the mid 17th century, a fundamental stagecoach infrastructure was being put in place.[4] The primary stagecoach route began in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was adopted by a gentle proliferation of different routes across the nation.[5]

A string of teaching inns operated as stopping factors for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century. The coach would depart each Monday and Thursday and took roughly ten days to make the journey throughout the summer season months. In addition they grew to become extensively adopted for journey in and round London by mid-century and usually travelled at a couple of miles per hour. Shakespeare’s first performs have been staged at teaching inns corresponding to The George Inn, Southwark.[6]

The Hyde Park Gate in London, erected by the Kensington Turnpike Belief. These trusts helped to stimulate a sustained interval of street enchancment within the 18th century.

The velocity of journey remained fixed till the mid-18th century. Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new strategies of street constructing and the improved building of coaches all led to a sustained rise within the consolation and velocity of the typical journey—from a median journey size of two days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a size of beneath 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped within the building of among the first spring-suspended coaches within the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes have been launched, enhancing the traits of the coach.[5]

In 1754, a Manchester-based firm started a brand new service referred to as the “Flying Coach”. It was marketed with the next announcement: “Nevertheless unimaginable it could seem, this coach will truly (barring accidents) arrive in London in 4 days and a half after leaving Manchester.” An identical service was begun from Liverpool three years later, utilizing coaches with metal spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to achieve London with a median velocity of eight miles per hour.[6]

Mail coach adorned within the black and scarlet Put up Workplace livery close to Newmarket, Suffolk in 1827.

Much more dramatic enhancements to teach velocity have been made by John Palmer on the British Put up Workplace, who commissioned a fleet of mail coaches to ship the publish throughout the nation.[7] His experimental coach left Bristol at 4 pm on 2 August 1784 and arrived in London simply 16 hours later.[8]

The golden age of the stagecoach was throughout the Regency interval, from 1800 to 1830. The period noticed nice enhancements within the design of the coaches, notably by John Besant in 1792 and 1795. His coach had a vastly improved turning capability and braking system, and a novel function that prevented the wheels from falling off whereas the coach was in movement.[7] Obadiah Elliott registered the primary patent for a spring-suspension car. Every wheel had two sturdy metal leaf springs on either side and the physique of the carriage was mounted on to the springs hooked up to the axles.[9]

Regular enhancements in street building have been additionally made presently, most significantly the widespread implementation of Macadam roads up and down the nation. Coaches on this interval travelled at round 12 miles per hour and vastly elevated the extent of mobility within the nation, each for individuals and for mail. Every route had a median of 4 coaches working on it at one time – two for each instructions and an additional two spares in case of a breakdown en route.

Motorbuses[edit]

The event of railways within the 1830s spelt the tip for the stagecoaches throughout Europe and America, with only some corporations surviving to offer companies for brief journeys and excursions till the early years of the 20th century.[10][11]

The primary motor coaches have been acquired by operators of these horse-drawn automobiles. W. C. Standerwick of Blackpool, England acquired its first motor charabanc in 1911,[12] and Royal Blue from Bournemouth acquired its first motor charabanc in 1913.[13] Motor coaches have been initially used just for excursions.[14]

In 1919, Royal Blue took benefit of a rail strike to run a coach service from Bournemouth to London. The service was so profitable that it expanded quickly.[15] In 1920 the Minister of Transport Eric Campbell Geddes was quoted in Punch journal as saying “I believe it could be a calamity if we did something to stop the financial use of charabancs”[16] and expressed concern on the issues prompted to small charabanc and omnibus operators in parliament.[17]

In America, Carl Eric Wickman started offering the primary service in 1913. Annoyed about being unable to promote a seven-passenger vehicle on the showroom flooring of the dealership the place he labored, he bought the car himself and began utilizing it to move miners between Hibbing and Alice, Minnesota. He started offering this service usually in what would begin a brand new firm and trade.[18] The corporate would at some point be generally known as Greyhound.

In 1914, Pennsylvania was the primary state to cross laws for bus service with a view to forestall monopolies of the trade from forming.[19] All remaining U.S. states would quickly comply with.[20]

The coach trade expanded quickly within the 1920s, a interval of intense competitors.[21][22] The Street Site visitors Act 1930 within the UK launched a nationwide system of regulation of passenger street transport and authorised native authorities to function transport companies.[23] It additionally imposed a velocity restrict of 30 mph for coaches[24] while eradicating any velocity restrict for personal vehicles.[25]

The 1930s to the 1950s noticed the event of bus stations for intercity transport. Many expanded from easy stops into main architecturally designed terminals that included buying and different companies.[26] Intercity bus transport elevated in velocity, effectivity and recognition till the 1950s and 1960s, when as the recognition of the non-public vehicle has elevated, the usage of intercity bus service has declined. For instance, in Canada within the 1950s, 120 million passengers boarded intercity bus service every year; within the 1960s, this quantity declined to 50 million. In the course of the 1990s, it was all the way down to 10 million.[27]

Traits of intercity buses/coaches[edit]

Intercity buses, as they maintain passengers for important durations of time on lengthy journeys, are designed for consolation. A sleeper bus is an instance of a car with optimum amenity for the longest journey occasions.

Route and operation[edit]

An intercity coach service might depart from a bus station with amenities for travellers or from a easy roadside bus cease. A coachway interchange is a time period (in the UK) for a stopping place on the sting of a city, with connecting native transport. Park and trip amenities permit passengers to start or full their journeys by vehicle. Intercity bus routes might comply with a direct freeway or freeway/motorway for shortest journey occasions, or journey by way of a scenic route for the enjoyment of passengers.

Intercity buses might run much less continuously and with fewer stops than a transit bus service. One frequent association is to have a number of stops initially of the journey, and several other close to the tip, with nearly all of the journey continuous on a freeway. Some stops might have service restrictions, corresponding to “boarding solely” (additionally referred to as “pickup solely”) and “discharge solely” (additionally referred to as “set-down solely”). Routes aimed toward commuters might have most or all scheduled journeys within the morning heading to an city central enterprise district, with journeys within the night primarily heading towards suburbs.

Intercity coaches might also be used to complement or substitute one other transport service, for instance when a prepare or airline route will not be in service.

Statistically, intercity bus service is taken into account to be a really secure mode of transportation. For instance, in the US there are about 0.5 fatalities per 100 million passenger miles traveled in response to the Nationwide Security Council.[28]

When accidents do happen, the big passenger capability of buses means accidents are disastrous of their magnitude. For instance, the Kempsey bus crash in Australia on 22 December 1989 concerned two full vacationer coaches, every travelling at 100 km/h, colliding head-on: 35 individuals died and 41 have been injured.

Intercity coach journey by nation[edit]

Canada[edit]

Intercity coach service could be very well-liked on routes to smaller city centres not served by By way of Rail in addition to in areas just like the Hall, particularly amongst college students, the place massive operators like Megabus, Greyhound Canada, and Coach Canada function very frequent companies. Different main operators within the hall embody Voyageur, Intercar, Limocar, and others. Intercity specific coaches (and trains) are operated by GO Transit as a part of the Larger Toronto area’s public transport system. Ontario Northland operates a bus service from Toronto to the Hudson and James Bay frontiers on the excessive north of the province. Many smaller and extra specifically-oriented carriers function in northern parts of the provinces away from prepare traces, corresponding to to Abitibi-Témiscamingue in Quebec. Within the Maritime Provinces, intercity buses are operated by Maritime Bus. In July 2018, Greyhound Canada introduced the suspension of companies in Western Canada except for the Vancouver, BC to Seattle Service operated by its American sister firm.[29] In 2018, a few of Greyhound Canada operations in Western Canada have been taken over by E-Bus, the BC Connector operated by the Wilson’s Group and Rider’s Categorical. The BC Provincial authorities offers a backed service from Prince George, BC to Valemount, Fort Nelson and Prince Rupert beneath the BCBusNorth model.

In 2012, cuts to service have been introduced by Greyhound Canada in Alberta[30] on the similar time that Acadian Coach Traces introduced its pending closure in Atlantic Canada.[31]

Montreal has a current new coach terminal, the Gare d’autocars de Montréal

There are actually plans, in Toronto, to assemble a brand new GO Bus terminal with a brand new intercity coach terminal built-in, related to Union Station.[32]

China[edit]

In comparatively developed areas of China the place the motorway community is intensive, intercity coach is a standard imply of transport between cities. In some cities, for instance Shenzhen, almost each city / district has a coach station.

Hong Kong[edit]

There are quite a few inter-city coach companies between Hong Kong and numerous cities of Guangdong Province, e.g. Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. These sorts of coaches are legally categorized as a type of non-franchised public bus, as “Worldwide Passenger Service”.[33]

As well as, there are some coach companies which simply carry passengers between the town of Hong Kong and the border crossing at Shenzhen, with out coming into the town centre in Shenzhen or additional. These companies are termed ‘short-haul cross-boundary coach service’ by the Transport Division which almost the entire journey is inside the limits of Hong Kong, versus ‘long-haul cross-boundary coach service’ which runs between cities.

Germany[edit]

Intercity coach service in Germany grew to become essential within the many years following the Second World Battle, because the Deutsche Bundesbahn and the German federal publish workplace operated quite a few bus routes in main cities and metropolitan areas related to one another. Whereas rail was faster and extra handy, the buses have been a low-cost various. With the growing prosperity of society and the rising use of the auto, the demand fell considerably and most of those traces have been abolished within the 1970s and 1980s.

One exception was site visitors from and to (West-)Berlin. An extended-distance bus community linking Berlin with Hamburg and several other different German areas was created on the time of German division due to the small variety of prepare companies between the cities. It nonetheless exists immediately.

Till 2012 new long-distance bus traces may solely be added in accordance with “Passenger Transportation Act” (PBefG), that means if they didn’t compete with current rail or bus traces. Since Germany – in distinction with many different European nations – has a well-developed rail community to all main cities and metropolitan areas, the home advertising and marketing of long-distance buses in Germany was a lot much less important than in lots of different nations.

The prevailing traces have been typically worldwide traces as exist in virtually all European nations, and for the transportation inside Germany, there was a ban.[34]

In 2012, the PBefG was amended, basically permitting intercity bus companies. Thus, since 1 January 2013 Coach companies have been allowed if they’re longer than 50 kilometers, which led to a fast-growing market with corporations like Meinfernbus, Deinbus, Flixbus, ADAC Postbus, Berlin Linien Bus GmbH and City2City.[35] Beginning shortly after the institution of the market a consolidation course of occurred, which decreased the variety of competing corporations. ADAC Postbus grew to become Postbus upon the ADAC leaving the cooperation. Meinfernbus and Flixbus fused to create a standard firm (at present the most important operator of long-distance buses in Germany) whereas City2City folded operations. Deinbus got here near chapter however secured an investor in time.

Greece[edit]

Since Greece’s rail community was underdeveloped, intercity bus journey grew to become essential within the post-war years.
The principle bus operator in Greece is KTEL. It was based in 1952.

Eire[edit]

Usually slower than rail journey with refreshment and bathroom stops required on longer routes.
The principle operators within the nation are the Bus Éireann and personal operators, corresponding to JJ Kavanagh and Sons. The bus service between Dublin and Belfast is offered by Bus Éireann and Ulsterbus offering frequent service, together with direct connections to Dublin Airport. Some bus companies run in a single day.

Israel[edit]

Due to the weak-developed rail community and the small measurement of the nation and the ensuing low home air site visitors, the long-distance bus cooperative Egged is the primary public transport service within the nation. Due to the widespread community, Egged is taken into account one of many largest bus corporations on this planet, partially due to the long-distance bus traces. Nevertheless, in recent times Israel railways has expanded and upgraded its route community and different corporations have taken over routes beforehand served by Egged.

Netherlands[edit]

Within the comparatively small Netherlands there’s a restricted variety of long-distance routes inside the nation. In 1994, the Interliner-network began with specific buses on connections devoid of rail transport. Owing to excessive fares, a dense rail community and different causes, the Interliner community fell aside into a number of totally different programs. In 2014, solely a restricted variety of specific buses existed as common public transport normally beneath the title Qliner.

Moreover of standard public transport, plenty of worldwide bus corporations serves Netherlands.

Firm From To
Flixbus Amsterdam Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, Austria, Czech Republic, Romania
Ouibus Amsterdam Belgium, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain
IC-Bus (DB, Arriva) Amsterdam Germany

Norway[edit]

Norway has long-distance bus routes inside the nation. They function in precisely inhabited areas, together with mountains, and have an effect on[clarification needed] the development of a complete railway community. Besides within the Oslo space, Norway has solely a somewhat sparse rail community, which extends north of the Arctic Circle to Fauske and Bodø, and to the north of Narvik with a connection to the Swedish rail community. Most of the routes are based mostly on random railways.[clarification needed] Along with this community, they supply public passenger transport by many extra corporations[clarification needed] inside Norway than airways, transport traces (together with the Hurtigruten) and bus traces, together with many long-distance bus traces.

The buses used within the north of the nation (particularly within the county of Finnmark) have each a passenger compartment and a freight compartment within the rear: many distant villages are related to the surface world solely by these buses, thus reaching a big a part of the cargo[clarification needed] by bus to the town.

Pakistan[edit]

Intercity bus transportation has risen dramatically in Pakistan as a result of decline of Pakistan Railways[36] and the unaffordable costs of airplanes for the typical Pakistani. Quite a few corporations have began working inside the nation corresponding to Daewoo Categorical and Niazi Categorical,Manthar Bus Service and have gained appreciable recognition because of their reliability, safety and good service.[37]Smaller vans are used for transportation within the mountainous north the place slender and harmful roads make it not possible for the motion of bigger buses.

Former Yugoslavia[edit]

Intercity bus journey in Serbia, in addition to in different nations of former Yugoslavia, could be very well-liked in proportion to journey by rail and air. In some areas, information has proven that intercity bus routes have transported over ten occasions the variety of passengers carried by intercity trains on the identical competing routes.[38] It has been a pattern round Serbia and the Balkan area that small cities and a few villages have their very own flagship bus provider, typically branded with the final title of the household whose proprietor runs that bus firm. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, and Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, have very massive central bus terminals that function 24 hours a day. The most important intercity bus operator in the entire area is Lasta Beograd which operates from Serbia to many nations in Europe.

Switzerland[edit]

Switzerland has a particularly dense community of interconnected rail, bus and ship traces, together with some long-distance bus traces. Though Switzerland is a mountainous nation, the rail community is denser than Germany’s. Switzerland is an exception to the rule that long-distance bus traces are established particularly in nations with insufficient railway community, or in areas with low inhabitants density. A number of the railway and predominant bus routes on Italian territory additionally serve to shorten the gap between Swiss cities. From Germany traces run from Frankfurt am Primary, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe to Basel and Lucerne.

Lengthy-distance bus companies in Switzerland:

Taiwan[edit]

More often than not, coaches in Taiwan is driving on Managed-access freeway, so it’s primarily referred to as Freeway Coach(Chinese language title:國道客運).
e.g. KBus(國光客運), UBus(統聯客運), HoHsin(和欣客運).

Turkey[edit]

Turkey has an intensive community of intercity buses. Each a part of the nation is served, together with essentially the most distant cities within the east. The buses are well-liked, comfy and frequent. For instance, there are over 150 departures from Istanbul to Ankara every day. The extent of onboard service could be very excessive, with free drinks and snacks on long-distance routes. The principle operators are Pamukkale Turizm, Kâmil Koç, Metro Turizm, Varan, Ulusoy and. Tickets may be purchased on-line from all of them.

United Kingdom[edit]

There’s an intensive community of scheduled coach transport in the UK. Nevertheless, passenger numbers are a fraction of these travelling by rail.[39] Coach journey corporations typically require passengers to buy tickets upfront of journey, that’s they is probably not purchased on board. The excellence between bus and coach companies will not be absolute, and a few coach companies, particularly in Scotland, function as native bus companies over sections of route the place there isn’t any different bus service.
Nationwide Categorical Coaches has operated companies beneath that title since 1972. Megabus began in 2004 and Greyhound UK in 2009. There are a lot of different operators. Receipts in 2004 have been £1.Eight billion (2008 costs) and grew considerably between 1980 and 2010. Ulsterbus join locations in Northern Eire that are now not on the railway community.

United States[edit]

Within the mid-1950s greater than 2,000 buses operated by Greyhound Traces, Trailways, and different corporations related 15,000 cities and cities. Passenger quantity decreased on account of increasing street and air journey, and concrete decay that prompted many neighborhoods with bus depots to turn out to be extra harmful. In 1960, American intercity buses carried 140 million riders; the speed decreased to 40 million by 1990, and continued to lower till 2006.[40]

By 1997, intercity bus transportation accounted for less than 3.6% of journey in the US.[41] Within the late 1990s, nonetheless, Chinatown bus traces that related New York with Boston and Philadelphia’s Chinatowns started working. They grew to become well-liked with non-Chinese language school college students and others who wished cheap transportation, and between 1997 and 2007 Greyhound misplaced 60% of its market share within the northeast United States to the Chinatown buses. Throughout the next decade, new bus traces corresponding to Megabus and BoltBus emulated the Chinatown buses’ practices of low costs and curbside stops on a a lot bigger scale, each within the authentic Northeast Hall and elsewhere, whereas introducing yield administration methods to the trade.[40][42][43]

By 2010 curbside buses’ annual passenger quantity had risen by 33% and so they accounted for greater than 20% of all bus journeys.[40] One analyst estimated that curbside buses that 12 months carried at the least 2.Four billion passenger miles within the Northeast Hall, in comparison with 1.7 billion passenger miles for Amtrak trains.[42] Conventional depot-based bus traces additionally grew, benefiting from what the American Bus Affiliation referred to as “the Megabus impact”, akin to the Southwest Impact,[40] and each Greyhound and its subsidiary Yo! Bus, which competed instantly with the Chinatown buses, benefited after the federal authorities shut a number of Chinatown traces down in June 2012.[43]

Between 2006 and 2014, American intercity buses centered on medium-haul journeys between 200 and 300 miles; airplanes carried out the majority of longer journeys and cars shorter ones. For many medium-haul journeys curbside bus fares have been lower than the price of vehicle gasoline, and one tenth that of Amtrak. Buses are additionally 4 occasions extra fuel-efficient than cars. Their Wi-Fi service can also be well-liked; one examine estimated that 92% of Megabus and BoltBus passengers deliberate to make use of an digital gadget.[40] New decrease fares launched by Greyhound on conventional medium-distance routes and rising gasoline costs have elevated ridership throughout the community and made bus journey cheaper than all options.

Efficient June 25, 2014, Greyhound reintroduced many for much longer bus routes, together with New York–Los Angeles, Los Angeles–Vancouver, and others, whereas growing frequencies on current long-distance and ultra-long-distance buses routes. This turned again the tide of shortening bus routes and places Greyhound again within the place of competing with long-distance street journeys, airways, and trains. Lengthy-distance buses have been to have Wi-Fi, energy shops, and further legroom, generally further recline, and have been to be cleaned, refueled, and driver-changed at main stations alongside the best way, coinciding with Greyhound’s eradication of overbooking. It additionally represented Greyhound’s conventional bus enlargement over the enlargement of curbside bus traces.[44]

Security on U.S. intercity buses[edit]

On August 4, 1952, Greyhound Traces had its deadliest accident when two Greyhound buses collided head-on alongside then-U.S. Route 81 close to Waco, Texas. The gas tanks of each buses then ruptured, bursting into flames. Of the 56 individuals aboard each coaches, 28 have been killed, together with each drivers.[45][46]

On Might 9, 1980, a freight ship collided with the Sunshine Skyway Bridge, leading to a number of automobiles, together with a Greyhound bus, falling into the Tampa Bay. All 26 individuals on the bus perished, together with 9 others. That is the biggest lack of life on a single Greyhound coach so far.

On March 5, 2010, a bus operated by Tierra Santa Inc. crashed on Interstate 10 in Arizona, killing six and injuring sixteen passengers. The bus was not carrying insurance coverage, and had additionally been working illegally as a result of the corporate had utilized for authority to function an interstate bus service, however had failed to answer requests for added info.[47][48]

Safety on U.S. intercity buses[edit]

Although typically uncommon, numerous incidents have occurred over time involving each drivers and passengers on intercity buses.

Safety grew to become a priority following the September 11 assaults. Lower than a month later, on October 3, 2001, Damir Igric, a passenger on a Greyhound bus, slit the throat of the motive force, killing Igric, and 6 different passengers because the bus crashed. It was decided there was no connection between the September 11 assaults and this incident. Nonetheless, this raised concern.

On September 30, 2002, one other Greyhound driver was assaulted close to Fresno, California, leading to two passenger deaths after the bus then rolled off an embankment and crashed.[49] Following this assault, driver shields have been put in on most Greyhound buses that now forestall passengers from instantly having contact the motive force whereas the bus is in movement, even when the protect is pressured open. On buses which wouldn’t have the protect, the seats instantly behind the motive force are typically off limits.[50]

The rising recognition in the US of latest bus traces corresponding to Megabus and BoltBus that decide up and drop off passengers on the road as an alternative of bus depots has led to an increase within the perceived safety of intercity buses. Megabus states {that a} quarter of its passengers are unaccompanied girls.[40]

City-suburban bus line[edit]

City-suburban bus line is mostly categorized as public transit, particularly for giant metropolitan transit networks. Normally these routes cowl an extended distance in comparison with most transit bus routes, however nonetheless brief—normally 40 miles in a single course. An urban-suburban bus line typically connects a suburban space to the downtown core.

The car may be one thing so simple as a merely refitted faculty bus (which generally already accommodates overhead storage racks) or a minibus. Typically a suburban coach could also be used, which is a typical transit bus modified to have among the performance of an interstate coach. An instance can be the Suburban line employed by TransLink (Vancouver), usually going from the downtown core of Vancouver to suburban cities corresponding to Delta and White Rock. In such case, the automobiles are modified normal transit bus, however with just one door and air con. The automobiles present lodging for the disabled (by means of a carry or ramp on the entrance), and thus has a couple of high-back seats, normally within the entrance, that may be folded up for wheelchairs. The remainder of the seats are reclining upholstered seats and have particular person lights and overhead storage bins. As a result of it’s a commuter bus, it has some (however not a lot) standing room, stop-request units, and a farebox. This mannequin additionally has a motorcycle rack on the entrance to accommodate two bicycles.

Some traces use a full-size interstate coach with on board rest room, such because the “TrainBus” service of Vancouver’s West Coast Categorical commuter rail system. Suburban fashions in the US are sometimes utilized in Park-and-Trip companies, and are quite common within the New York Metropolis space, the place New Jersey Transit Bus Operations is a serious operator serving widespread bed room communities.

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Efficient Approaches to Assembly Rural Intercity Bus Transportation Wants – Google Books. 2002. ISBN 9780309067638. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  3. ^ Transportation Statistics Annual Report (1997) edited by Marsha Fenn, web page 175
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  48. ^ “Bus in deadly Arizona crash working illegally”. CNN. March 6, 2010.
  49. ^ Knife assault on California bus BBC.co.uk, October 1, 2002, date accessed: Might 28, 2008
  50. ^ Greyhound faces lawsuits over ’01 wreck Passengers say line stored quiet about assaults on drivers[permanent dead link], from the Atlanta Journal-Structure, accessed Might 28, 2008


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