14th century Muslim Berber Moroccan scholar and explorer

Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 1304 – 1368/1369)[a] was a Muslim Berber-Moroccan scholar and explorer who extensively travelled the Outdated world.[2] Over a interval of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited many of the Outdated World, together with Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, China, and Iberian Peninsula. Close to the top of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Present to These Who Ponder the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Touring, however generally referred to as The Rihla. In distance, he travelled greater than another explorer on file, totaling round 117,000 km (72,000 miles), surpassing Zheng He with about 50,000 km (30,000 miles) and Marco Polo with 24,000 km (15,000 miles).[3]

Biography[edit]

Formative years[edit]

A 13th-century e-book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti exhibiting a gaggle of pilgrims on a hajj.

All that’s recognized about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical info included within the account of his travels, which data that he was of Berber descent, born right into a household of Islamic authorized students in Tangier, Morocco, on 24 February 1304, throughout the reign of the Marinid dynasty.[4] His household belonged to a Berber tribe referred to as the Lawata.[5] As a younger man, he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki madh’hab (Islamic jurisprudence faculty), the dominant type of schooling in North Africa at the moment.[6] Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta function their spiritual choose as he was from an space the place it was practised.[7]

His identify[edit]

Europeans are generally puzzled by Arabic/Islamic naming conventions, which largely do not embrace a given, center, or household identify. As a substitute they have an inclination to have a probably prolonged sequence of epithetic, aspirational, and/or patronymic names.

On this case, ibn Battuta merely means “son of Battuta”…however this may occasionally have simply been a nickname, as a result of “battuta” means “duckling”. [8] His most typical “full identify” is given as Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battuta,[9] which merely means “Father of Abdullah (and Abdullah means “worshipper of Allah”), Praiseworthy son of Battuta”. However many authoritative texts will go on longer, including extra of his acquired identify sequence. In his travelogue, the Rihla, he offers his full identify as ’ ibn Muhammad .[10][11][12]

Itinerary 1325–1332[edit]

Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1325–1332 (North Africa, Iraq, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, Somalia, Swahili Coast)

First pilgrimage[edit]

In June 1325, on the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca, a journey that might ordinarily take sixteen months. He wouldn’t see Morocco once more for 24 years.

“I set out alone, having neither fellow-traveller in whose companionship I’d discover cheer, nor caravan whose half I’d be part of, however swayed by an overmastering impulse inside me and a want long-cherished in my bosom to go to these illustrious sanctuaries. So I braced my decision to give up my expensive ones, feminine and male, and forsook my house as birds forsake their nests. My mother and father being but within the bonds of life, it weighed sorely upon me to half from them, and each they and I had been troubled with sorrow at this separation.”[14]

He travelled to Mecca overland, following the North African coast throughout the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid and Hafsid. The route took him by way of Tlemcen, Béjaïa, after which Tunis, the place he stayed for 2 months.[15] For security, Ibn Battuta normally joined a caravan to cut back the danger of being robbed. He took a bride within the city of Sfax,[16] the primary in a sequence of marriages that might characteristic in his travels.[17]

Within the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta arrived on the port of Alexandria, on the time a part of the Bahri Mamluk empire. He met two ascetic pious males in Alexandria. One was Sheikh Burhanuddin who is meant to have foretold the future of Ibn Battuta as a world traveller saying “It appears to me that you’re keen on overseas journey. You’ll go to my brother Fariduddin in India, Rukonuddin in Sind and Burhanuddin in China. Convey my greetings to them”. One other pious man Sheikh Murshidi interpreted the that means of a dream of Ibn Battuta that he was meant to be a world traveller.[18][19]

He spent a number of weeks visiting websites within the space, after which headed inland to Cairo, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate and an vital metropolis. After spending a few month in Cairo,[20] he launched into the primary of many detours inside the relative security of Mamluk territory. Of the three regular routes to Mecca, Ibn Battuta selected the least-travelled, which concerned a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Crimson Sea port of Aydhab.[b] Upon approaching the city, nonetheless, an area riot compelled him to show again.[22]

Ibn Battuta returned to Cairo and took a second aspect journey, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus. Throughout his first journey he had encountered a holy man who prophesied that he would solely attain Mecca by travelling by way of Syria.[23] The diversion held an added benefit; due to the holy locations that lay alongside the way in which, together with Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem, the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in holding the route protected for pilgrims. With out this assist many travellers can be robbed and murdered.[c]

After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the 1,300 km (810 mi) south to Medina, website of the Mosque of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After 4 days within the city, he journeyed on to Mecca, the place upon finishing his pilgrimage he took the honorific standing of El-Hajji. Moderately than returning house, Ibn Battuta determined to proceed touring, selecting as his subsequent vacation spot the Ilkhanate, a Mongol Khanate, to the northeast.

Iraq and Persia[edit]

Ibn Battuta made a quick go to to the Persian-Azari metropolis of Tabriz in 1327.

On 17 November 1326, following a month spent in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a big caravan of pilgrims returning to Iraq throughout the Arabian Peninsula.[30] The group headed north to Medina after which, travelling at night time, turned northeast throughout the Najd plateau to Najaf, on a journey that lasted about two weeks. In Najaf, he visited the mausoleum of Ali, the Fourth Caliph.[31]

Then, as an alternative of continuous to Baghdad with the caravan, Ibn Battuta began a six-month detour that took him into Persia. From Najaf, he journeyed to Wasit, then adopted the river Tigris south to Basra. His subsequent vacation spot was the city of Isfahan throughout the Zagros Mountains in Persia. He then headed south to Shiraz, a big, flourishing metropolis spared the destruction wrought by Mongol invaders on many extra northerly cities. Lastly, he returned throughout the mountains to Baghdad, arriving there in June 1327.[32] Elements of town had been nonetheless ruined from the harm inflicted by Hulago Khan’s invading military in 1258.

In Baghdad, he discovered Abu Sa’id, the final Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanate, leaving town and heading north with a big retinue.[34] Ibn Battuta joined the royal caravan for some time, then turned north on the Silk Street to Tabriz, the primary main metropolis within the area to open its gates to the Mongols and by then an vital buying and selling centre as most of its close by rivals had been razed by the Mongol invaders.[35]

Ibn Battuta left once more for Baghdad, most likely in July, however first took an tour northwards alongside the river Tigris. He visited Mosul, the place he was the visitor of the Ilkhanate governor, after which the cities of Cizre (Jazirat ibn ‘Umar) and Mardin in modern-day Turkey. At a hermitage on a mountain close to Sinjar, he met a Kurdish mystic who gave him some silver cash.[d][39] As soon as again in Mosul, he joined a “feeder” caravan of pilgrims heading south to Baghdad, the place they’d meet up with the principle caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert to Mecca. Sick with diarrhoea, he arrived within the metropolis weak and exhausted for his second hajj.[40]

Arabia[edit]

Ibn Battuta remained in Mecca for a while (the Rihla suggests about three years, from September 1327 till autumn 1330). Issues with chronology, nonetheless, lead commentators to counsel that he might have left after the 1328 hajj.[e]

After the hajj in both 1328 or 1330, he made his option to the port of Jeddah on the Crimson Coastline. From there he adopted the coast in a sequence of boats making gradual progress in opposition to the prevailing south-easterly winds. As soon as in Yemen he visited Zabīd and later the highland city of Ta’izz, the place he met the Rasulid dynasty king (Malik) Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali. Ibn Battuta additionally mentions visiting Sana’a, however whether or not he truly did so is uncertain.[41] In all chance, he went straight from Ta’izz to the vital buying and selling port of Aden, arriving across the starting of 1329 or 1331.[42]

Somalia[edit]

The port and waterfront of Zeila

From Aden, Ibn Battuta launched into a ship heading for Zeila on the coast of Somalia. He then moved on to Cape Guardafui additional down the Somalia seaboard, spending a few week in every location. Later he would go to Mogadishu, the then pre-eminent metropolis of the “Land of the Berbers” (بلد البربر Balad al-Barbar, the medieval Arabic time period for the Horn of Africa).[43][44][45]

When Ibn Battuta arrived in 1331, Mogadishu stood on the zenith of its prosperity. He described it as “an exceedingly giant metropolis” with many wealthy retailers, famous for its high-quality material that was exported to different nations, together with Egypt.[46] Ibn Battuta added that town was dominated by a Somali Sultan, Abu Bakr ibn Sayx ‘Umar,[47][48] who was initially from Berbera in northern Somalia and spoke each Somali (referred to by Battuta as Mogadishan, the Benadir dialect of Somali) and Arabic with equal fluency.[48][49] The Sultan additionally had a retinue of wazirs (ministers), authorized consultants, commanders, royal eunuchs, and diverse hangers-on at his beck and name.[48]

Swahili Coast[edit]

Ibn Battuta continued by ship south to the Swahili Coast, a area then recognized in Arabic because the Bilad al-Zanj (“Land of the Zanj”),[50] with an in a single day cease on the island city of Mombasa.[51] Though comparatively small on the time, Mombasa would turn out to be vital within the following century.[52] After a journey alongside the coast, Ibn Battuta subsequent arrived within the island city of Kilwa in present-day Tanzania,[53] which had turn out to be an vital transit centre of the gold commerce.[54] He described town as “one of many best and most fantastically constructed cities; all of the buildings are of wooden, and the homes are roofed with dīs reeds”.[55]

Ibn Battuta recorded his go to to the Kilwa Sultanate in 1330, and commented favorably on the humility and faith of its ruler, Sultan al-Hasan ibn Sulaiman, a descendant of the legendary Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi. He additional wrote that the authority of the Sultan prolonged from Malindi within the north to Inhambane within the south and was notably impressed by the planning of town, believing it to be the explanation for Kilwa’s success alongside the coast. Throughout this era, he described the development of the Palace of Husuni Kubwa and a major extension to the Nice Mosque of Kilwa, which was product of coral stones and was the most important Mosque of its sort. With a change within the monsoon winds, Ibn Battuta sailed again to Arabia, first to Oman and the Strait of Hormuz then on to Mecca for the hajj of 1330 (or 1332).[56]

Itinerary 1332–1347[edit]

Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1332–1346 (Black Sea Space, Central Asia, India, South East Asia and China)

Anatolia[edit]

After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta determined to hunt employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq. Within the autumn of 1330 (or 1332), he set off for the Seljuk managed territory of Anatolia with the intention of taking an overland path to India. He crossed the Crimson Sea and the Japanese Desert to achieve the Nile valley after which headed north to Cairo. From there he crossed the Sinai Peninsula to Palestine after which travelled north once more by way of among the cities that he had visited in 1326. From the Syrian port of Latakia, a Genoese ship took him (and his companions) to Alanya on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey.

He then journeyed westwards alongside the coast to the port of Antalya. Within the city he met members of one of many semi-religious fityan associations. These had been a characteristic of most Anatolian cities within the 13th and 14th centuries. The members had been younger artisans and had at their head a pacesetter with the title of Akhis. The associations specialised in welcoming travellers. Ibn Battuta was very impressed with the hospitality that he obtained and would later keep of their hospices in additional than 25 cities in Anatolia. From Antalya Ibn Battuta headed inland to Eğirdir which was the capital of the Hamidids. He spent Ramadan (June 1331 or Could 1333) within the metropolis.

From this level the itinerary throughout Anatolia within the Rihla is confused. Ibn Battuta describes travelling westwards from Eğirdir to Milas after which skipping 420 km (260 mi) eastward previous Eğirdir to Konya. He then continues travelling in an easterly route, reaching Erzurum from the place he skips 1,160 km (720 mi) again to Birgi which lies north of Milas. Historians imagine that Ibn Battuta visited a lot of cities in central Anatolia, however not within the order that he describes.[65][f]

Central Asia[edit]

From Sinope he took a sea path to the Crimean Peninsula, arriving within the Golden Horde realm. He went to the port city of Azov, the place he met with the emir of the Khan, then to the big and wealthy metropolis of Majar. He left Majar to fulfill with Uzbeg Khan’s travelling court docket (Orda), which was on the time close to Beshtau mountain. From there he made a journey to Bolghar, which grew to become the northernmost level he reached, and famous its unusually (for a subtropics dweller) quick nights in summer time. Then he returned to the Khan’s court docket and with it moved to Astrakhan.[citation needed]

Ibn Battuta recorded that whereas in Bolghar he needed to journey additional north into the land of darkness. The land is snow-covered all through (northern Siberia) and the one technique of transport is dog-drawn sled. There lived a mysterious individuals who had been reluctant to indicate themselves. They traded with southern folks in a peculiar method. Southern retailers introduced numerous items and positioned them in an open space on the snow within the night time, then returned to their tents. Subsequent morning they got here to the place once more and located their merchandise taken by the mysterious folks, however in change they discovered fur-skins which may very well be used for making precious coats, jackets, and different winter clothes. The commerce was accomplished between retailers and the mysterious folks with out seeing one another. As Ibn Battuta was not a service provider and noticed no good thing about going there he deserted the journey to this land of darkness.[68]

After they reached Astrakhan, Öz Beg Khan had simply given permission for one among his pregnant wives, Princess Bayalun, a daughter of Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, to return to her house metropolis of Constantinople to present beginning. Ibn Battuta talked his method into this expedition, which might be his first past the boundaries of the Islamic world.[69]

Arriving in Constantinople in direction of the top of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. He visited the nice church of Hagia Sophia and spoke with an Japanese Orthodox priest about his travels within the metropolis of Jerusalem. After a month within the metropolis, Ibn Battuta returned to Astrakhan, then arrived within the capital metropolis Sarai al-Jadid and reported the accounts of his travels to Sultan Öz Beg Khan (r. 1313–1341). Then he continued previous the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bukhara and Samarkand, the place he visited the court docket of one other Mongolian king, Tarmashirin (r. 1331–1334) of the Chagatai Khanate.[70] From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan, then crossed into India through the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush.[71] Within the Rihla, he mentions these mountains and the historical past of the vary in slave buying and selling.[72][73] He wrote,

After this I proceeded to town of Barwan, within the street to which is a excessive mountain, coated with snow and exceedingly chilly; they name it the Hindu Kush, that’s Hindu-slayer, as a result of many of the slaves introduced tither from India die on account of the intenseness of the chilly.

— Ibn Battuta, Chapter XIII, Rihla – Khorasan[73][74]

Ibn Battuta and his occasion reached the Indus River on 12 September 1333.[75] From there, he made his option to Delhi and have become acquainted with the sultan, Muhammad bin Tughluq.

India[edit]

Tomb of Feroze Shah Tughluq, successor of Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi. Ibn Battuta served as a qadi or choose for six years throughout Muhammad bin Tughluq’s reign.

Muhammad bin Tughluq was famend because the wealthiest man within the Muslim world at the moment. He patronized numerous students, Sufis, qadis, viziers and different functionaries with a view to consolidate his rule. As with Mamluk Egypt, the Tughlaq Dynasty was a uncommon vestigial instance of Muslim rule in Asia after the Mongol invasion.[citation needed] On the energy of his years of research in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was appointed a qadi, or choose, by the sultan. Nonetheless, he discovered it tough to implement Islamic regulation past the sultan’s court docket in Delhi, resulting from lack of Islamic attraction in India.[77]

It’s unsure by which route Ibn Battuta entered the Indian subcontinent. He might have entered through the Khyber Cross and Peshawar, or additional south.[79] He crossed the Sutlej river close to town of Pakpattan,[80] in modern-day Pakistan, the place he paid obeisance on the shrine of Baba Farid,[78] earlier than crossing southwest into Rajput nation. From the Rajput Kingdom of Sarsatti, Battuta visited Hansi in India, describing it as “among the many most lovely cities, one of the best constructed and probably the most populated; it’s surrounded with a robust wall, and its founder is claimed to be one of many nice infidel kings, known as Tara”.[81] Upon his arrival in Sindh, Ibn Battuta mentions the Indian rhinoceros that lived on the banks of the Indus.[82]

The Sultan was erratic even by the requirements of the time and for six years Ibn Battuta veered between dwelling the excessive lifetime of a trusted subordinate and falling underneath suspicion of treason for quite a lot of offences. His plan to depart on the pretext of taking one other hajj was stymied by the Sultan. The chance for Battuta to depart Delhi lastly arose in 1341 when an embassy arrived from Yuan dynasty China asking for permission to rebuild a Himalayan Buddhist temple widespread with Chinese language pilgrims.[g][86]

Ibn Battuta was given cost of the embassy however en path to the coast in the beginning of the journey to China, he and his giant retinue had been attacked by a gaggle of bandits.[87] Separated from his companions, he was robbed and almost misplaced his life.[88] Regardless of this setback, inside ten days he had caught up together with his group and continued on to Khambhat within the Indian state of Gujarat. From there, they sailed to Calicut (now referred to as Kozhikode), the place Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama would land two centuries later. Whereas in Calicut, Battuta was the visitor of the ruling Zamorin. Whereas Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, a storm arose and one of many ships of his expedition sank.[89] The opposite ship then sailed with out him solely to be seized by an area Sumatran king a couple of months later.

Afraid to return to Delhi and be seen as a failure, he stayed for a time in southern India underneath the safety of Jamal-ud-Din, ruler of the small however highly effective Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the Sharavathi river subsequent to the Arabian Sea. This space is right this moment referred to as Hosapattana and lies within the Honavar administrative district of Uttara Kannada. Following the overthrow of the sultanate, Ibn Battuta had no alternative however to depart India. Though decided to proceed his journey to China, he first took a detour to go to the Maldive Islands the place he labored as a choose.[90]

He spent 9 months on the islands, for much longer than he had meant. As a Chief Qadi, his abilities had been extremely fascinating within the previously Buddhist nation that had just lately transformed to Islam. Half-kidnapped into staying, he grew to become chief choose and married into the royal household of Omar I. He grew to become embroiled in native politics and left when his strict judgments within the laissez-faire island kingdom started to chafe with its rulers. Within the Rihla he mentions his dismay on the native ladies going about with no clothes above the waist, and the locals taking no discover when he complained.[91] From the Maldives, he carried on to Sri Lanka and visited Sri Pada and Tenavaram temple.

Ibn Battuta’s ship nearly sank on embarking from Sri Lanka, just for the vessel that got here to his rescue to undergo an assault by pirates. Stranded onshore, he labored his method again to the Madurai kingdom in India. Right here he spent a while within the court docket of the short-lived Madurai Sultanate underneath Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad Damghani, from the place he returned to the Maldives and boarded a Chinese language junk, nonetheless intending to achieve China and take up his ambassadorial publish.

He reached the port of Chittagong in modern-day Bangladesh aspiring to journey to Sylhet to fulfill Shah Jalal, who grew to become so famend that Ibn Battuta, then in Chittagong, made a one-month journey by way of the mountains of Kamaru close to Sylhet to fulfill him. On his option to Sylhet, Ibn Battuta was greeted by a number of of Shah Jalal’s disciples who had come to help him on his journey many days earlier than he had arrived. On the assembly in 1345 CE, Ibn Battuta famous that Shah Jalal was tall and lean, honest in complexion and lived by the mosque in a cave, the place his solely merchandise of worth was a goat he saved for milk, butter, and yogurt. He noticed that the companions of the Shah Jalal had been overseas and recognized for his or her energy and bravado. He additionally mentions that many individuals would go to the Shah to hunt steerage. Ibn Battuta went additional north into Assam, then rotated and continued together with his unique plan.[citation needed]

Southeast Asia[edit]

In 1345, Ibn Battuta travelled on to Samudra Pasai Sultanate in present-day Aceh, Northern Sumatra, the place he notes in his journey log that the ruler of Samudra Pasai was a pious Muslim named Sultan Al-Malik Al-Zahir Jamal-ad-Din, who carried out his spiritual duties with utmost zeal and sometimes waged campaigns in opposition to animists within the area. The island of Sumatra, in response to Ibn Battuta, was wealthy in camphor, areca nut, cloves, and tin.[93]

The madh’hab he noticed was Imam Al-Shafi‘i, whose customs had been much like these he had beforehand seen in coastal India, particularly among the many Mappila Muslims, who had been additionally followers of Imam Al-Shafi‘i. At the moment Samudra Pasai marked the top of Dar al-Islam, as a result of no territory east of this was dominated by a Muslim. Right here he stayed for about two weeks within the picket walled city as a visitor of the sultan, after which the sultan supplied him with provides and despatched him on his method on one among his personal junks to China.[93]

Ibn Battuta first sailed to Malacca on the Malay Peninsula which he known as “Mul Jawi”. He met the ruler of Malacca and stayed as a visitor for 3 days.

Ibn Battuta then sailed to a state known as Kaylukari within the land of Tawalisi, the place he met Urduja, an area princess. Urduja was a courageous warrior, and her folks had been opponents of the Yuan dynasty. She was described as an “idolater”, however might write the phrase Bismillah in Islamic calligraphy. The places of Kaylukari and Tawalisi are disputed. Kaylukari may referred to Po Klong Garai in Champa (now southern Vietnam), and Urduja may be an aristocrat of Champa or the Trần dynasty. Filipinos extensively imagine that Kaylukari was in present-day Pangasinan Province of the Philippines.[94] In fashionable instances, Urduja has been featured in Filipino textbooks and movies as a nationwide heroine. Quite a few different places have been proposed, starting from Java to someplace in Guangdong Province, China. Nonetheless, Sir Henry Yuletide and William Henry Scott contemplate each Tawilisi and Urduja to be totally fictitious. (See Tawalisi for particulars.)

From Kaylukari, Ibn Battuta lastly reached Quanzhou in Fujian Province, China.

China[edit]

Ibn Battuta offers the earliest point out of the Nice Wall of China with regard to medieval geographic research, though he didn’t see it.

Within the 12 months 1345 Ibn Battuta arrived at Quanzhou in China’s Fujian province, then underneath the rule of the Mongols. One of many first issues he famous was that Muslims referred to town as “Zaitun” (that means olive), however Ibn Battuta couldn’t discover any olives anyplace. He talked about native artists and their mastery in making portraits of newly arrived foreigners; these had been for safety functions. Ibn Battuta praised the craftsmen and their silk and porcelain; in addition to fruits comparable to plums and watermelons and some great benefits of paper cash.

He described the manufacturing course of of enormous ships within the metropolis of Quanzhou.[96] He additionally talked about Chinese language delicacies and its utilization of animals comparable to frogs, pigs and even canine which had been offered within the markets, and famous that the chickens in China had been bigger than these within the west. Students nonetheless have identified quite a few errors given in Ibn Battuta’s account of China, for instance complicated the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and different waterways, in addition to believing that porcelain was constructed from coal.[97]

In Quanzhou, Ibn Battuta was welcomed by the top of the native Muslim retailers (presumably a fānzhǎng or “Chief of Foreigners” simplified Chinese language: 番长; conventional Chinese language: 番長; pinyin: fānzhǎng)and Sheikh al-Islam (Imam), who got here to fulfill him with flags, drums, trumpets and musicians.[98] Ibn Battuta famous that the Muslim populace lived inside a separate portion within the metropolis the place that they had their very own mosques, bazaars and hospitals. In Quanzhou, he met two distinguished Persians, Burhan al-Din of Kazerun and Sharif al-Din from Tabriz[99] (each of whom had been influential figures famous within the Yuan Historical past as “A-mi-li-ding” and “Sai-fu-ding”, respectively).[100] Whereas in Quanzhou he ascended the “Mount of the Hermit” and briefly visited a well known Taoist monk in a cave.

He then travelled south alongside the Chinese language coast to Guangzhou, the place he lodged for 2 weeks with one of many metropolis’s rich retailers.

From Guangzhou he went north to Quanzhou after which proceeded to town of Fuzhou, the place he took up residence with Zahir al-Din and was proud to fulfill Kawam al-Din and a fellow countryman named Al-Bushri of Ceuta, who had turn out to be a rich service provider in China. Al-Bushri accompanied Ibn Battuta northwards to Hangzhou and paid for the items that Ibn Battuta would current to the Mongolian Emperor Togon-temür of the Yuan Dynasty.[102]

Ibn Battuta stated that Hangzhou was one of many largest cities he had ever seen,[103] and he famous its attraction, describing that town sat on a stupendous lake surrounded by light inexperienced hills.[104] He mentions town’s Muslim quarter and resided as a visitor with a household of Egyptian origin.[102] Throughout his keep at Hangzhou he was notably impressed by the big variety of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese language picket ships, with colored sails and silk awnings, assembling within the canals. Later he attended a banquet of the Yuan Mongol administrator of town named Qurtai, who in response to Ibn Battuta, was very keen on the talents of native Chinese language conjurers. Ibn Battuta additionally mentions locals who worship the Photo voltaic deity.[106]

He described floating by way of the Grand Canal on a ship watching crop fields, orchids, retailers in black silk, and ladies in flowered silk and clergymen additionally in silk.[107] In Beijing, Ibn Battuta referred to himself because the long-lost ambassador from the Delhi Sultanate and was invited to the Yuan imperial court docket of Togon-temür (who in response to Ibn Battuta was worshipped by some folks in China). Ibn Batutta famous that the palace of Khanbaliq was product of wooden and that the ruler’s “head spouse” (Empress Gi) held processions in her honour.[108]

Ibn Battuta additionally wrote he had heard of “the rampart of Yajuj and Majuj” that was “sixty days’ journey” from town of Zeitun (Quanzhou);Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb notes that Ibn Battuta believed that the Nice Wall of China was constructed by Dhul-Qarnayn to comprise Gog and Magog as talked about within the Quran. Nonetheless, Ibn Battuta, who requested concerning the wall in China, might discover nobody who had both seen it or knew of anybody who had seen it.[111]

Ibn Battuta travelled from Beijing to Hangzhou, after which proceeded to Fuzhou. Upon his return to Quanzhou, he quickly boarded a Chinese language junk owned by the Sultan of Samudera Pasai Sultanate heading for Southeast Asia, whereupon Ibn Battuta was unfairly charged a hefty sum by the crew and misplaced a lot of what he had collected throughout his keep in China.[112]

Battuta claimed that the Mongol Khan (Qan) had interned with him in his grave six slave troopers and 4 woman slaves.[113] Silver, gold, weapons, and carpets had been put into the grave.[114]

Return[edit]

After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, Ibn Battuta started his journey again to Morocco.[115] In Kozhikode, he as soon as once more thought-about throwing himself on the mercy of Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi, however thought higher of it and determined to hold on to Mecca. On his option to Basra he handed by way of the Strait of Hormuz, the place he discovered that Abu Sa’id, final ruler of the Ilkhanate Dynasty had died in Persia. Abu Sa’id’s territories had subsequently collapsed resulting from a fierce civil battle between the Persians and Mongols.[116]

In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj. He then discovered that his father had died 15 years earlier[117] and dying grew to become the dominant theme for the following 12 months or so. The Black Dying had struck and he stopped in Homs because the plague unfold by way of Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. He heard of horrible dying tolls in Gaza, however returned to Damascus that July the place the dying toll had reached 2,400 victims every day. When he stopped in Gaza he discovered it was depopulated, and in Egypt he stayed at Abu Sir. Reportedly deaths in Cairo has reached ranges of 1,100 every day. He made hajj to Mecca then he determined to return to Morocco, almost 1 / 4 of a century after leaving house.[120] On the way in which he made one final detour to Sardinia, then in 1349, returned to Tangier by means of Fez, solely to find that his mom had additionally died a couple of months earlier than.[121]

Itinerary 1349–1354[edit]

Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1349–1354 (North Africa, Spain and West Africa)

Spain and North Africa[edit]

After a couple of days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta set out for a visit to the Muslim-controlled territory of al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula. King Alfonso XI of Castile and León had threatened to assault Gibraltar, so in 1350, Ibn Battuta joined a gaggle of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port.[122] By the point he arrived, the Black Dying had killed Alfonso and the specter of invasion had receded, so he turned the journey right into a sight-seeing tour, travelling by way of Valencia and ending up in Granada.[123]

After his departure from al-Andalus he determined to journey by way of Morocco. On his return house, he stopped for some time in Marrakech, which was nearly a ghost city following the latest plague and the switch of the capital to Fez.[124]

Mali and Timbuktu[edit]

Within the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta left Fez and made his option to the city of Sijilmasa on the northern fringe of the Sahara in present-day Morocco.[125] There he purchased a lot of camels and stayed for 4 months. He set out once more with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days arrived on the dry salt lake mattress of Taghaza with its salt mines. All the native buildings had been constructed from slabs of salt by the slaves of the Masufa tribe, who minimize the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a business centre and awash with Malian gold, although Ibn Battuta didn’t type a beneficial impression of the place, recording that it was affected by flies and the water was brackish.[126]

After a ten-day keep in Taghaza, the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (most likely Bir al-Ksaib)[h] the place it stopped for 3 days in preparation for the final and most tough leg of the journey throughout the huge desert. From Tasarahla, a Masufa scout was despatched forward to the oasis city of Oualata, the place he organized for water to be transported a distance of 4 days journey the place it could meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan commerce route and had just lately turn out to be a part of the Mali Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa.[128]

From there, Ibn Battuta travelled southwest alongside a river he believed to be the Nile (it was truly the river Niger), till he reached the capital of the Mali Empire.[i] There he met Mansa Suleyman, king since 1341. Ibn Battuta disapproved of the truth that feminine slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about exposing components of their our bodies not befitting a Muslim.[130] He left the capital in February accompanied by an area Malian service provider and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu.[131] Although within the subsequent two centuries it could turn out to be an important metropolis within the area, at the moment it was a small metropolis and comparatively unimportant. It was throughout this journey that Ibn Battuta first encountered a hippopotamus. The animals had been feared by the native boatmen and hunted with lances to which sturdy cords had been hooked up.[133] After a brief keep in Timbuktu, Ibn Battuta journeyed down the Niger to Gao in a canoe carved from a single tree. On the time Gao was an vital business heart.[134]

After spending a month in Gao, Ibn Battuta set off with a big caravan for the oasis of Takedda. On his journey throughout the desert, he obtained a message from the Sultan of Morocco commanding him to return house. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353, accompanying a big caravan transporting 600 feminine slaves, and arrived again in Morocco early in 1354.[135]

Ibn Battuta’s itinerary offers students a glimpse as to when Islam first started to unfold into the center of west Africa.[136]

A home within the metropolis of Tangier, the attainable website of Ibn Battuta’s grave.

Historic copy of chosen components of the Journey Report by Ibn Battuta, 1836 CE, Cairo

After returning house from his travels in 1354, and on the suggestion of the Marinid ruler of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, Ibn Battuta dictated an account in Arabic of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy, a scholar whom he had beforehand met in Granada. The account is the one supply for Ibn Battuta’s adventures. The total title of the manuscript could also be translated as A Masterpiece to These Who Ponder the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling (تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار, Tuḥfat an-Nuẓẓār fī Gharāʾib al-Amṣār wa ʿAjāʾib al-Asfār).[137][j] Nonetheless, it’s usually merely known as The Travels (الرحلة, Rihla),[139] in reference to a typical type of Arabic literature.

There isn’t any indication that Ibn Battuta made any notes or had any journal throughout his twenty-nine years of travelling.[k] When he got here to dictate an account of his experiences he needed to depend on reminiscence and manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. Ibn Juzayy didn’t acknowledge his sources and introduced among the earlier descriptions as Ibn Battuta’s personal observations. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina and another locations within the Center East, he clearly copied passages from the account by the Andalusian Ibn Jubayr which had been written greater than 150 years earlier.[141] Equally, most of Ibn Juzayy’s descriptions of locations in Palestine had been copied from an account by the 13th-century traveller Muhammad al-Abdari.[142]

Students don’t imagine that Ibn Battuta visited all of the locations he described and argue that with a view to present a complete description of locations within the Muslim world, he relied on rumour proof and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For instance, it’s thought-about most unlikely that Ibn Battuta made a visit up the Volga River from New Sarai to go to Bolghar[143] and there are critical doubts about a lot of different journeys comparable to his journey to Sana’a in Yemen,[144] his journey from Balkh to Bistam in Khorasan[145] and his journey round Anatolia.[146]

Ibn Battuta’s declare {that a} Maghrebian known as “Abu’l Barakat the Berber” transformed the Maldives to Islam is contradicted by a wholly completely different story which says that the Maldives had been transformed to Islam after miracles had been carried out by a Tabrizi named Maulana Shaikh Yusuf Shams-ud-din in response to the Tarikh, the official historical past of the Maldives.[147]

Some students have additionally questioned whether or not he actually visited China.[148] Ibn Battuta might have plagiarized complete sections of his descriptions of China lifted from works by different authors like “Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar” by Shihab al-Umari, Sulaiman al-Tajir, and presumably from Al Juwayni, Rashid al din and an Alexander romance. Moreover, Ibn Battuta’s description and Marco Polo’s writings share extraordinarily comparable sections and themes, with among the similar commentary, e.g. it’s unlikely that the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan had somebody with the precise similar identify in China who was encountered by Ibn Battuta.[149]

Nonetheless, even when the Rihla shouldn’t be absolutely primarily based on what its creator personally witnessed, it offers an vital account of a lot of the 14th-century world. Concubines had been utilized by Ibn Battuta comparable to in Delhi.[140]:111–13, 137, 141, 238[150] He wedded a number of ladies, divorced at the very least a few of them, and in Damascus, Malabar, Delhi, Bukhara, and the Maldives had youngsters by them or by concubines.[151] Ibn Battuta insulted Greeks as “enemies of Allah”, drunkards and “swine eaters”, whereas on the similar time in Ephesus he bought and used a Greek woman who was one among his many slave ladies in his “harem” by way of Byzantium, Khorasan, Africa, and Palestine.[152] It was 20 years earlier than he once more returned to seek out out what occurred to one among his wives and little one in Damascus.[153]

Ibn Battuta usually skilled tradition shock in areas he visited the place the native customs of just lately transformed peoples didn’t slot in together with his orthodox Muslim background. Among the many Turks and Mongols, he was astonished on the freedom and respect loved by ladies and remarked that on seeing a Turkish couple in a bazaar one may assume that the person was the girl’s servant when he was in truth her husband.[154] He additionally felt that costume customs within the Maldives, and a few sub-Saharan areas in Africa had been too revealing.

Little is understood about Ibn Battuta’s life after completion of his Rihla in 1355. He was appointed a choose in Morocco and died in 1368 or 1369.[155]

Ibn Battuta’s work was unknown outdoors the Muslim world till the start of the 19th century, when the German traveller-explorer Ulrich Jasper Seetzen (1767–1811) acquired a set of manuscripts within the Center East, amongst which was a 94-page quantity containing an abridged model of Ibn Juzayy’s textual content. Three extracts had been revealed in 1818 by the German orientalist Johann Kosegarten.[156] A fourth extract was revealed the next 12 months. French students had been alerted to the preliminary publication by a prolonged evaluate revealed within the Journal de Savants by the orientalist Silvestre de Sacy.

Three copies of one other abridged manuscript had been acquired by the Swiss traveller Johann Burckhardt and bequeathed to the College of Cambridge. He gave a quick overview of their content material in a e-book revealed posthumously in 1819.[159] The Arabic textual content was translated into English by the orientalist Samuel Lee and revealed in London in 1829.

Within the 1830s, throughout the French occupation of Algeria, the Bibliothèque Nationale (BNF) in Paris acquired 5 manuscripts of Ibn Battuta’s travels, wherein two had been full.[l] One manuscript containing simply the second a part of the work is dated 1356 and is believed to be Ibn Juzayy’s autograph.[165] The BNF manuscripts had been utilized in 1843 by the Irish-French orientalist Baron de Slane to provide a translation into French of Ibn Battuta’s go to to the Sudan. They had been additionally studied by the French students Charles Defrémery and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Starting in 1853 they revealed a sequence of 4 volumes containing a crucial version of the Arabic textual content along with a translation into French.[167] Of their introduction Defrémery and Sanguinetti praised Lee’s annotations however had been crucial of his translation which they claimed lacked precision, even in easy passages.[m]

In 1929, precisely a century after the publication of Lee’s translation, the historian and orientalist Hamilton Gibb revealed an English translation of chosen parts of Defrémery and Sanguinetti’s Arabic textual content. Gibb had proposed to the Hakluyt Society in 1922 that he ought to put together an annotated translation of the whole Rihla into English. His intention was to divide the translated textual content into 4 volumes, every quantity equivalent to one of many volumes revealed by Defrémery and Sanguinetti. The primary quantity was not revealed till 1958. Gibb died in 1971, having accomplished the primary three volumes. The fourth quantity was ready by Charles Beckingham and revealed in 1994. Defrémery and Sanguinetti’s printed textual content has now been translated into variety of different languages.

Historicity[edit]

The German Center East scholar Ralph Elger views Battuta’s journey account as an vital literary work however doubts the historicity of a lot of its content material, which he suspects to be a piece of fiction being compiled and impressed from different modern journey experiences.[173] Varied different students have raised comparable doubts.[174]

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ Arabic: ابن بطوطة‎; absolutely: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Yūsuf al-Lawātī al-Ṭanji; Arabic: شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله بن محمد بن إبراهيم بن محمد بن إبراهيم بن يوسف اللواتي الطنجي
  2. ^ Aydhad was a port on the west coast of the Crimson Sea at 22°19′51″N 36°29′25″E / 22.33083°N 36.49028°E / 22.33083; 36.49028.
  3. ^ Ibn Battuta left Cairo on round 16 July 1326 and arrived in Damascus three weeks in a while 9 August 1326. He described travelling on a sophisticated zig-zag route throughout Palestine wherein he visited greater than twenty cities. Such a journey would have been unimaginable within the allotted time and each Gibb (1958) and Hrbek (1962) have argued that Ibn Battuta conflated this journey with later journeys that he made within the area. Elad (1987) has proven that Ibn Battuta’s descriptions of many of the websites in Palestine weren’t unique however had been copied (with out acknowledgement) from the sooner rihla by the traveller Mohammed al-Abdari. Due to these difficulties, it isn’t attainable to find out an correct chronology of Ibn Battuta’s travels within the area.
  4. ^ Most of Ibn Battuta’s descriptions of the cities alongside the Tigris are copied from Ibn Jabayr’s Rihla from 1184.
  5. ^ Ibn Battuta states that he stayed in Mecca for the hajj of 1327, 1328, 1329 and 1330 however offers comparatively little info on his stays. After the hajj of 1330 he left for East Africa, arriving again once more in Mecca earlier than the 1332 hajj. He states that he then left for India and arrived on the Indus river on 12 September 1333; nonetheless, though he doesn’t specify actual dates, the outline of his complicated itinerary and the clues within the textual content to the chronology counsel that this journey to India lasted round three years. He should have subsequently both left Mecca two years sooner than said or arrived in India two years later. The difficulty is mentioned by Gibb 1962, pp. 528–37 Vol. 2, Hrbek 1962 and Dunn 2005, pp. 132–33.
  6. ^ That is one among a number of events the place Ibn Battuta interrupts a journey to department out on a aspect journey solely to later skip again and resume the unique journey. Gibb describes these aspect journeys as “divagations”. The divagation by way of Anatolia is taken into account credible as Ibn Battuta describes quite a few private experiences and there may be ample time between leaving Mecca in mid-November 1330 and reaching Eğirdir on the way in which again from Erzurum in the beginning of Ramadan (Eight June) in 1331.[65] Gibb nonetheless admits that he discovered it tough to imagine that Ibn Battuta truly travelled as far east as Erzurum.
  7. ^ Within the Rihla the date of Ibn Battuta’s departure from Delhi is given as 17 Safar 743 AH or 22 July 1342. Dunn has argued that that is most likely an error and to accommodate Ibn Battuta’s subsequent travels and visits to the Maldives it’s extra doubtless that he left Delhi in 1341.
  8. ^ Bir al-Ksaib (additionally Bir Ounane or El Gçaib) is in northern Mali at 21°17′33″N 5°37′30″W / 21.29250°N 5.62500°W / 21.29250; -5.62500. The oasis is 265 km (165 mi) south of Taghaza and 470 km (290 mi) north of Oualata.
  9. ^ The situation of the Malian capital has been the topic of appreciable scholarly debate however there isn’t any consensus. The historian, John Hunwick has studied the instances given by Ibn Battuta for the assorted levels of his journey and proposed that the capital is more likely to have been on the left aspect of the Niger River someplace between Bamako and Nyamina.
  10. ^ Dunn offers the clunkier translation A Present to the Observers Regarding the Curiosities of the Cities and the Marvels Encountered in Travels.[138]
  11. ^ Although he mentions being robbed of some notes[140]
  12. ^ Neither de Slane’s 19th century catalogue nor the trendy on-line equal present any info on the provenance of the manuscripts.[162] Dunn states that each one 5 manuscripts had been “present in Algeria” however of their introduction Defrémery and Sanguinetti point out that the BNF had acquired one manuscript (MS Supplément arabe 909/Arabe 2287) from M. Delaporte, a former French consul to Morocco.
  13. ^ French: “La model de M. Lee manque quelquefois d’exactitude, même dans des passage fort simples et très-faciles“.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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    His full identify, as given within the Rihla, was Shams al-Din Abu’Abdallah Muhammad ibn’Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Lawati al-Tanji ibn Battuta and all that’s recognized of his household comes from the Rihla which data references to his schooling and offers his lineage.
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  11. ^ Ibn Battuta — Encyclopedia Britannica
    Ibn Battuta, additionally spelled Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, in full Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Lawātī al-Ṭanjī ibn Baṭṭūṭah, (born February 24, 1304, Tangier, Morocco—died 1368/69 or 1377, Morocco), the best medieval Muslim traveler and the creator of one of the vital well-known journey books, the Riḥlah (Travels).
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  100. ^ p. 310
  101. ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 310–11; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, pp. 9–10 Vol. 1
  102. ^ a b Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. Picador. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-330-41879-9.
  103. ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 313–14; Mattock 1981
  104. ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 63–64; Elad 1987
  105. ^ Dunn 2005, p. 179; Janicsek 1929
  106. ^ Dunn 2005, p. 134 Notice 17
  107. ^ Dunn 2005, p. 180 Notice 23
  108. ^ Dunn 2005, p. 157 Notice 13
  109. ^ Kamala Visweswaran (2011). Views on Fashionable South Asia: A Reader in Tradition, Historical past, and Illustration. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-1-4051-0062-5. Archived from the unique on 19 January 2017.
  110. ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 253, 262 Notice 20
  111. ^ Ralf Elger; Yavuz Köse (2010). Many Methods of Talking concerning the Self: Center Japanese Ego-documents in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish (14th–20th Century). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 79–82. ISBN 978-3-447-06250-3. Archived from the unique on 11 December 2017.
  112. ^ Stewart Gordon (2009). When Asia was the World. Perseus Books Group. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-0-306-81739-7.
  113. ^ Michael N. Pearson (2003). The Indian Ocean. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-134-60959-8. He had a son to a Moroccan girl/spouse in Damascus … a daughter to a slave woman in Bukhara … a daughter in Delhi to a spouse, one other to a slave woman in Malabar, a son within the Maldives to a spouse … within the Maldives at the very least he divorced his wives earlier than he left.
  114. ^ William Dalrymple (2003). Metropolis of Djinns: A Yr in Delhi. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-12701-8.
  115. ^ Kate S. Hammer (1999). The Position of Girls in Ibn Battuta’s Rihla. Indiana College. p. 45.
  116. ^ Gibb 1958, pp. 480–81; Dunn 2005, p. 168
  117. ^ Gibb 1958, pp. ix–x Vol. 1; Dunn 2005, p. 318
  118. ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, Vol. 1 pp. xiii–xiv; Kosegarten 1818.
  119. ^ Burckhardt 1819, pp. 533–37 Notice 82; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, Vol. 1 p. xvi
  120. ^ MS Arabe 2287; MS Arabe 2288; MS Arabe 2289; MS Arabe 2290; MS Arabe 2291.
  121. ^ de Slane 1843b; MS Arabe 2291
  122. ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1855; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858
  123. ^ Lewis Gropp: Zeitzeuge oder Fälscher?. Deutschlandfunk,. 17 August 2010 (German, retrieved 11 Could 2029)
  124. ^ Roxanne L. Euben: Journeys to the Different Shore: Muslim and Western Vacationers in Search of Information. Princeton College Press, 2008, ISBN 9781400827497, p. 220

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Kosegarten, Johann Gottfried Ludwig (1818). De Mohamedde ebn Batuta Arabe Tingitano ejusque itineribus commentatio academica (in Latin and Arabic). Jena: Croecker. OCLC 165774422.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
  • Lee, Samuel (1829), The Travels of Ibn Batuta, London: Oriental Translation Committee. A translation of an abridged manuscript. The textual content is mentioned in Defrémery & Sanguinetti (1853) Quantity 1 pp. xvi–xvii.
  • Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.P., eds. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York: Marcus Weiner Press, ISBN 978-1-55876-241-1. First revealed in 1981. pp. 279–304 comprise a translation of Ibn Battuta’s account of his go to to West Africa.
  • Mattock, J.N. (1981), “Ibn Baṭṭūṭa’s use of Ibn Jubayr’s Riḥla“, in Peters, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants: Amsterdam, 1st to seventh September 1978, Leiden: Brill, pp. 209–218, ISBN 978-90-04-06380-8.
  • “MS Arabe 2287 (Supplément arabe 909)”. Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  • “MS Arabe 2288 (Supplément arabe 911)”. Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  • “MS Arabe 2289 (Supplément arabe 910)”. Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  • “MS Arabe 2290 (Supplément arabe 908)”. Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  • “MS Arabe 2291 (Supplément arabe 907)”. Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
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  • Yuletide, Henry (1916), “IV. Ibn Battuta’s travels in Bengal and China”, Cathay and the Means Thither (Quantity 4), London: Hakluyt Society, pp. 1–106. Consists of the textual content of Ibn Battuta’s account of his go to to China. The interpretation is from the French textual content of Defrémery & Sanguinetti (1858) Quantity 4.
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Exterior hyperlinks[edit]


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