Emirates (Arabic: طَيَران الإمارات DMG: Ṭayarān Al-Imārāt) is the most important airline and flag service of the United Arab Emirates. Based mostly in Garhoud, Dubai, the airline is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group, which is owned by the federal government of Dubai’s Funding Company of Dubai . It is usually the most important airline within the Center East, working over 3,600 flights per week from its hub at Terminal Three of Dubai Worldwide Airport, to greater than 150 cities in 80 international locations throughout six continents by means of its fleet of almost 300 plane. Cargo actions are undertaken by Emirates SkyCargo.
Emirates is the world’s fourth largest airline by scheduled income passenger-kilometers flown, and the second-largest when it comes to freight tonne kilometers flown.
In the course of the mid-1980s, Gulf Air started to chop again its companies to Dubai. In consequence, Emirates was conceived in March 1985 with backing from Dubai’s royal household, with Pakistan Worldwide Airways offering two of the airline’s first plane on wet-lease. With $10 million in start-up capital it was required to function independently of presidency subsidy. Pakistan Worldwide Airways supplied coaching amenities to Emirates’ cabin crew at its academy. The airline was headed by Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the airline’s current chairman. Within the years following its founding, the airline expanded each its fleet and its locations. In October 2008, Emirates moved all operations at Dubai Worldwide Airport to Terminal 3.
Emirates operates a blended fleet of Airbus and Boeing wide-body plane and is among the few airways to function an all-wide-body plane fleet (excluding Emirates Government). As of February 2019[update], Emirates is the most important Airbus A380 operator with 115 plane in service and an extra Eight on order. Since its introduction, the Airbus A380 has turn out to be an integral a part of the Emirates fleet, particularly on long-haul, high-density routes. Emirates can also be the world’s largest Boeing 777 operator with 155 plane in service. The corporate slogans have included Fly Emirates, From Dubai to locations all over the world, Hold Discovering, Howdy Tomorrow, and is presently Fly Emirates, Fly Higher.
The airline is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group, which itself is a subsidiary of the Dubai authorities’s funding firm, Funding Company Funding Company of Dubai. The airline has recorded a revenue yearly, besides the second yr, and the expansion has by no means fallen beneath 20% a yr. In its first 11 years, it doubled in dimension each 3.5 years, and has each 4 years since.
In 2015 Emirates paid dividends price AED2.6 billion (US$708 million), in comparison with AED1 billion (US$272 million) in 2014. The federal government has obtained AED14.6 billion from Emirates since dividends began being paid in 1999 for having supplied an preliminary start-up capital of US$10 million and a further funding of about US$80 million on the time of the airline’s inception. The Dubai authorities is the only proprietor of the corporate. Nonetheless, it doesn’t put any new cash into it, nor does it intrude with operating the airline.
Construction and employment
Emirates has diversified into associated industries and sectors, together with airport companies, engineering, catering, and tour operator operations. Emirates has seven subsidiaries and its guardian firm has greater than 50. On the finish of the fiscal yr on 31 March 2020, the corporate employed a complete of 59,519 employees of which 21,789 have been cabin crew, 4,313 have been flight deck crew, 3,316 have been in engineering, 12,627 have been listed as different, 5,376 workers have been at abroad stations and 12,098 have been at subsidiary corporations.:72 Emirates’ guardian firm, The Emirates Group, employed a complete of 105,730 workers.:184
Emirates offers its workers with advantages resembling complete well being plans and paid maternity and sick go away. One other technique employed by Emirates is to make use of revenue sharing and benefit pay as a part of its competency based mostly strategy to efficiency administration.
The airline claims to have decrease emissions than different airways as a result of its fleet which has a mean gasoline burn of lower than 4 litres for each 100 passenger kilometers it flies. The cargo division of the airline makes use of the same hub-and-spoke community of operations.
- Emirates has acknowledged that its variations of the A380-800 will supply gasoline financial system of three.1 litres per 100 passenger km.
- The corporate makes use of a program referred to as “Flextracks”. The know-how is used to plan and optimize routes effectivity and cargo issue. Passenger load elements have been 81.2% within the 6 months to September 2010.
- Emirates has invested in a program referred to as “tailor-made arrivals”. This enables air site visitors management to uplink to plane en route. It first determines the pace and flight profile from the air onto the runway, this enables the crew to just accept and fly a steady descent profile, saving gasoline and emissions.
Monetary and operational efficiency
Within the monetary yr 2019-20, Emirates generated revenues of round AED 92.Zero billion ($25.1 billion), which represented a lower of roughly 6% over the earlier yr’s revenues of AED 97.9 billion. Passenger numbers additionally decreased from 58.6 million to 56.2 million over the identical interval representing a lower of round 4%. Passenger seat issue elevated by 1.7percentpts to 78.5%. Cargo carried in 2019-20 additionally declined, by 10% to 2.Four million tonnes (2018-19: 2.7 million tonnes). The airline’s earnings for the 2019/20 fiscal yr rose by 21% to AED 1.1 billion ($25.1 billion) on the again of the decrease oil costs and powerful US greenback, though the 45-day runway closure at Dubai Worldwide and COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected outcomes.:9
Its guardian firm noticed earnings down 28% to $0.5 billion for the yr to 31 March.
As of March 2020, Emirates is utilizing gasoline value hedging. Gasoline was 29.1% of whole prices, and worker associated prices have been 13.4% of whole prices.:66,83
The airline was the third-largest airline on the planet when it comes to worldwide passengers carried,:19 and the most important:20 on the planet when it comes to scheduled worldwide passenger-kilometers flown. It is usually the second-largest when it comes to scheduled freight tonne-kilometers flown (first in scheduled worldwide freight tonne-kilometers flown).:22
Emirates’ monetary success has been attributed to speedy progress in demand for air journey within the Center East, Africa, and Asia; the airline’s funding in state-of-the-art plane, and the supply of airport capability that can be utilized 24 hours a day.
|Yr Ended||Passengers flown
|31 March 1998||3,683.4||200.1||4,089.||3,826.7||(+)262.413|
|31 March 1999||4,252.7||214.2||4,442.9||4,130.2||(+)312.959|
|31 March 2000||4,775.4||269.9||5,113.8||4,812.9||(+)300.900|
|31 March 2001||5,719||335||6,359||5,693||(+)666|
|31 March 2002||6,765||401||7,137||6,511||(+)626|
|31 March 2003||8,503||525||9,514||8,513||(+)1,001|
|31 March 2004||10,441||660||13,116||11,368||(+)1,749|
|31 March 2005||12,529||838||17,909||15,290||(+)2,619|
|31 March 2006||14,498||1,019||22,658||20,006||(+)2,652|
|31 March 2007||17,544||1,156||29,173||25,834||(+)3,339|
|31 March 2008||21,229||1,282||38,810||34,359||(+)4,451|
|31 March 2009||22,731||1,408||43,266||40,988||(+)2,278|
|31 March 2010||27,454||1,580||43,455||39,890||(+)3,565|
|31 March 2011||31,422||1,767||54,231||48,788||(+)5,443|
|31 March 2012||33,981||1,796||62,287||60,474||(+)1,813|
|31 March 2013||39,391||2,086||73,113||70,274||(+)2,839|
|31 March 2014||44,537||2,250||82,636||79,382||(+)3,254|
|31 March 2015||49,292||2,377||88,819||82,926||(+)5,893|
|31 March 2016||51,853||2,509||85,044||76,714||(+)8,330|
|31 March 2017||56,076||2,577||85,083||82,648||(+)2,435|
|31 March 2018||58,485||2,623||92,322||88,236||(+)4,086|
|31 March 2019||58,601||2,659||97,907||95,260||(+)2,647|
|31 March 2020:7,180||56,162||2,389||91,972||85,564||(+)6,408|
Within the 1990s, Emirates launched its first set of commercials with the slogan So be good to your self, Fly Emirates. In 1999, it launched a really uncommon A330-200 launch industrial with totally different footage displaying its plane with the unique brand and the present brand (which was launched just a few months earlier than).
Commercials have reappeared in 2002, although the airline wouldn’t undertake the slogan Fly Emirates. Hold Discovering till 2004. In 2008, Emirates launched a slogan primarily revolving round its route community of 100 locations in 59+ international locations throughout six continents – Fly Emirates. Hold Discovering and Fly Emirates. To over Six Continents. Emirates presently makes use of the slogan Fly Higher.
Emirates launched a brand new design in August 2008 for its 16,000 uniformed employees, designed by Simon Jersey. The offboard uniform consists of the Emirates hat, pink kick-pleats within the skirts, extra fitted blouses and the return of pink leather-based footwear and purses. For the onboard uniform, female and male cabin crew put on service waistcoats instead of the beforehand worn service jackets and tabards. The male flight attendants put on a chocolate brown swimsuit, that includes pinstripes, with a cream shirt and a caramel, honey and pink tie. Each female and male pursers put on this chocolate brown colour, however with no pink featured.
Since its formation in 1985, although to a restricted extent till all plane have been repainted, Emirates aeroplanes carried a piece of the United Arab Emirates flag on the tail fins, a calligraphy of the emblem in Arabic on the engines and the “Emirates” brand on the fuselage each in Arabic and English. The color scheme used since 1985 was modified in November 1999 to the one nonetheless in use in the present day. This transformation noticed the modification of logotype, the enlargement and transfer of the English brand (the Arabic remaining smaller) in the direction of the entrance of the plane and a unique, flowing flag on the tailfin.
In 2011, Emirates sponsored the Emirates Air Line cable automotive over the River Thames in East London.
Since 2015, Emirates has sponsored the England-based Spinnaker Tower in Portsmouth, on the south coast. The airline did have £3.5 million price of plans to color the landmark pink, however after some dialogue with the residents of Portsmouth and Southsea, Emirates agreed the tower was to be colored blue and gold, with pink lettering of the Emirates sponsor, for the pure motive that Portsmouth F.C. (the native soccer workforce) is colored blue. It’s now named “Emirates Spinnaker Tower”.
Emirates sponsors Cricket Australia, Lord’s Taverners, and Professional Arch Match. Its branding additionally options on worldwide cricket umpires shirts. Emirates has additionally turn out to be an official associate of the Worldwide Cricket Council until date. This deal provides Emirates affiliation with all main ICC tournaments, together with the 2011, 2015 and 2019 ICC Cricket World Cups, ICC Champions Trophy and ICC World Twenty20.
Emirates is the Twenty20 shirt sponsor of Durham County Cricket Membership and maintain the naming rights to the Riverside Floor, now generally known as Emirates Riverside, in addition to the naming rights to the Emirates Previous Trafford Cricket Floor, and is the shirt sponsor of Lancashire County Cricket Membership. Emirates have been additionally the main sponsor of the Kings XI Punjab (Season 2,Three and 4) and Deccan Chargers (Season 5) and Rajasthan Royals (Season 11) groups of Indian Premier League, the most important home cricket event on the planet.
Emirates was additionally a sponsor of FIFA and the FIFA World Cup, however stopped its sponsorship in early 2015, as a result of allegations of corruption and bribery inside FIFA, in addition to FIFA’s questionable resolution to award the 2022 FIFA World Cup to Qatar.
Because the 2006–07 season, it has been the first shirt sponsor of Arsenal, AC Milan because the 2010–11 season, Actual Madrid because the 2013–14 season and Benfica because the 2015–16 season It is usually the first shirt sponsor of the New York Cosmos. Emirates can also be the title sponsor of the FA Cup, Emirates Cup and Arsenal’s Emirates Stadium. It was the first shirt sponsor of Chelsea from August 2001 till Might 2005,Paris Saint-Germain (till Might 2019), and Hamburger SV till June 2020.
In August 2009 the Scottish Junior Soccer Affiliation introduced that Emirates would sponsor its Scottish Cup competitors. Emirates is the sponsor of AFC journey and play, in AFC Champions League and AFF Suzuki Cup.
Emirates will probably be Olympique Lyonnais most important sponsor from the 2020–2021 season.
Since 2014 Emirates has been the sponsor of Tremendous League Rugby League workforce, the Warrington Wolves. It’s a multi-year sponsorship and the price has been touted as round £5m.
Since 2015, Emirates can also be the sponsor of Tremendous Rugby South African workforce the Lions in addition to having the naming rights of the workforce and Ellis Park rugby stadium. It is usually the primary sponsor of USA Rugby.
Emirates is the sponsor for the World Rugby panel of worldwide referees.
Different sports activities
In horse racing, Emirates sponsors the Dubai Worldwide Racing Carnival. It sponsored the Australian Turf Membership’s Autumn and Spring Carnival till 2011, and the Melbourne Cup Carnival from 2003 till 2017.
Emirates can also be a daily sponsor of the equestrian sport showjumping, notably at occasions in Dubai with the CSI5* Emirates Airline Dubai Grand Prix, and with the Longines Masters collection, a collection which presently runs CSI5* competitions in Hong Kong, Paris and New York (previously held in Los Angeles)
Emirates is the main sponsor of the Emirates Crew New Zealand, winners of the 35th America’s Cup in crusing.
Emirates was additionally a sponsor of British Components One workforce McLaren within the 2006 season. It is usually the Components One official airline sponsor since 2013 season. Emirates is a most important sponsor on the Japanese Grand Prix from 2016.
Because the 2012 season, Emirates has sponsored the US Open Collection, a six-week summer time tennis season main as much as the US Open. Its sponsorship runs till 2019.
Emirates additionally sponsors Collingwood Soccer Membership within the Australian Soccer League, and FC Dallas in Main League Soccer.
Because the 2016 season, Emirates is the official airline of the Los Angeles Dodgers of MLB.
Since 2017 Emirates is the sponsor of the UAE Crew Emirates -former Crew Lampre-Mérida- which is a UCI World Tour Biking Crew. Being World Tour, the workforce obtains automated entry in to the Tour de France, Giro d’Italia & Vuelta a Espana in addition to all the main someday races.
Since 2015, Jennifer Aniston has starred in two commercials for the corporate.
In Might 2015, Emirates operated over 3,000 flights each week throughout its community of over 140 locations in over 70 international locations throughout six continents from its hub in Dubai. Previous to suspensions as a result of COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, Emirates’ world community spanned 157 locations in 83 international locations.
Emirates has collaborated with different airways however will not be a member of any of the three world airline alliances – Oneworld, SkyTeam or Star Alliance. In 2000, the airline briefly thought-about becoming a member of Star Alliance, however opted to stay unbiased. The reasoning for this was later revealed by senior vice-president of the airline’s industrial operations worldwide that, “Your potential to react within the market is hindered since you want a consensus out of your alliance companions”.
Emirates codeshares with the next airways:
Emirates SkyCargo is the air freight division of Emirates. It started operations in October 1985, the identical yr Emirates was fashioned, and launched its personal plane companies in 2001 with a Boeing 747 Freighter. It serves 10 unique cargo locations, apart from others in widespread with the Emirates passenger community. As of June 2019 it operates 11 Boeing 777 Freighters
Emirates Government was launched in 2013 for company and personal charters. It operates a single Airbus ACJ319 enterprise jet, accommodating 19 folks. It options a mixture of non-public suites and seating, a lounge, eating space and loos with full top showers.
As of July 2020, Emirates operates a fleet of 255 passenger plane and 11 cargo plane operated by Emirates SkyCargo. Emirates operates the most important fleet of each the Airbus A380 and Boeing 777 plane on the planet, with one A319 as an govt jet. Emirates has had no narrow-body plane in its mainline fleet since 1995.
In July 2014, Emirates finalized an order for 150 Boeing 777X plane (this quantity later decreased, see beneath), consisting of 35 777-8s and 115 777-9s, and, as of October 2017[update], was anticipated to turn out to be the launch operator for the 777X in mid-2020. In November 2017, it signed a dedication for 40 787-10s, however by early 2019, it was contemplating cancelling this order as a result of engine margins being inadequate for the recent Dubai climate, in favour of the A350.
In February 2019, Emirates signed a memorandum of understanding with Airbus for 40 A330-900s and 30 A350-900s, whereas decreasing its whole A380 order to eight after which Airbus will stop manufacturing of the A380. In November 2019, Emirates introduced an order of 50 A350-900s price US$16 billion that outdated the February memorandum of understanding. Additionally in November, Emirates ordered 30 787-9s with a worth of US$8.Eight billion with deliveries to begin in 2023, whereas decreasing its order of 777Xs from 150 to 126. In December, Emirates decreased additional 777X orders from 126 to 115.
An Emirates Airbus A380-800 painted within the airline’s present livery.
A now-retired Emirates Airbus A300-600R painted in a earlier livery.
Present livery (1999–current)
The present livery contains a UAE flag on the vertical stabilizer and a white fuselage, with the golden phrase “Emirates” painted on the higher fuselage was launched in November 1999 on the Boeing 777-300 and on all Airbus A330 plane that have been delivered from November 1999. The livery rolled out shortly after in 2000 on the remainder of the Emirates fleet and Emirates repainted all plane to the present livery by 2005. The present livery additionally stored the Arabic firm title however the font dimension is smaller than the one from the outdated livery. The Emirates brand in Arabic is painted gold on all engines.
Former livery (1985–2005)
The previous livery of Emirates was comparable as the present one, besides that the font was Instances New Roman and it was comparatively smaller, situated on the highest of the home windows. There was additionally the Arabic firm title painted. All plane sporting the outdated livery have been repainted or retired. The outdated livery was retired by 2005 because the final plane with the outdated livery (an Airbus A310-300) was repainted to the present livery.
- First Class
There are two sorts of top notch seating; the totally enclosed suite with a ceiling to ground door and a personal suite with doorways that shut however do not prolong to the ceiling. Each suites come full with closing doorways to make sure privateness, a mini-bar, a coat rack and storage. In addition they characteristic the ICE system on a 23-inch-wide (58 cm) LCD display within the non-public suites and a 32-inch-wide (81 cm) on the totally enclosed suite. The seat converts right into a 2-metre-long (79 in) totally flat mattress. Personal suites can be found on 3-class Airbus A380-800 and 3-class Boeing 777-300ER plane. The totally enclosed suites can be found on its newly delivered Boeing 777-300ER plane.
On its newly delivered Airbus A380-800, First-class options non-public suites, two shower-equipped bathrooms and spa, and entry to the primary/enterprise class bar space and lounge. Premium class seating is situated on your entire higher deck of A380-800 plane.
Emirates launched a brand new First Class cabin for its Boeing 777-300ER fleet on 12 November 2017 and first flight to Brussels and Geneva on 1 December 2017. The brand new First Class cabin is configured with six suites on a 1-1-1 structure. The center suites include digital home windows that mission reside feed from the surface of the plane on actual time. Each the center suites are geared up with Three digital home windows that are excessive definition LCD screens which relay actual time picture utilizing the HD cameras on both aspect of the plane. Facilities embody 2 minibars positioned on both aspect of the leisure display, a 13inch pill with a entrance digital camera to speak with the cabin crew and to order room service. A panel to manage the lighting and temperature contained in the suite. Emirates has additionally launched a brand new seat in collaboration with Mercedes-Benz, which characteristic a brand new zero-gravity place. The suites are anticipated to resemble “a personal bed room on a luxurious yacht”.
- Enterprise Class
Enterprise class on Boeing 777-200LRs and Boeing 777-300ERs characteristic seats with a 1.5-metre-long (60 in) pitch that recline to 2-metre-long (79 in), angled lie-flat beds. Facilities embody therapeutic massage perform, privateness partition, winged headrest with six-way motion, two particular person studying lights and an overhead mild per seat, in-seat energy provide, USB Ports and an RCA socket for laptop computer connection, over 600 channels of leisure on ICE, proven on a 23 in-wide (58 cm) HD TV display.
On Airbus A380-800 plane, the seats recline to kind a completely flat mattress and are geared up with private mini-bars. As a result of distinctive staggered structure, half of the enterprise class seats on Emirates A380 are 23 cm (9 in) shorter than the others, at only one.8 m (70 in) lengthy. Enterprise class passengers even have entry to an on-board bar on the rear of the plane.
- Premium Economic system Class
Even though presently, no plane in Emirates’ fleet has a Premium Economic system Class on board, one is ready to be launched alongside the supply of Emirates’ first Boeing 777X (round 2020–2021). These seats are additionally set to be fitted on the airline’s Airbus A380s round 2020–2021 and Boeing 777-300ERs. A number of sources theorize that the seats could also be HAECO’s Eclipse Cabin, whereas others speculate that they could be extra “typical” ones, however it’s nonetheless unknown what seat kind the airline will use.
- Economic system Class
Emirates Economic system class presents a 79–81-centimetre-long (31–32 in) seat pitch on Airbus plane and 86 cm (34 in) on Boeing plane and normal seat width (besides on the Boeing 777 fleet). Emirates has ten seats per row on its Boeing 777 fleet. The seat options adjustable headrests, a 3000 channel ICE In-Flight-Leisure and in-seat laptop computer power-outlets on newer plane and laptop computer recharging amenities in galleys in older plane. There’s extra recline on A380 Economic system class seats.
Catering on Emirates flights from Dubai Worldwide is supplied by Emirates Flight Catering which operates one of many largest airline catering amenities on the planet. Emirates additionally presents particular meal choices, in all lessons, based mostly on age, dietary restrictions, desire and spiritual observance. Particular meals should be ordered prematurely, at the least 24 hours earlier than the flight departure time. All meals, nevertheless, are ready in accordance with Halal dietary pointers.
In June 2018, Emirates signed a $40 million three way partnership with Oakland, California-based Crop One Holdings, to construct and keep the world’s largest hydroponic rising facility. It can present every day yields of roughly Three tons of leafy greens per day to all flights, with a close to 150,000 sq. foot indoor, vertical farm.
In-flight leisure system
Emirates turned one of many first group of airways on the planet to introduce a private leisure system on a industrial plane in 1992, shortly after Virgin Atlantic launched the same system all through the cabins of its plane in 1991. All three lessons characteristic a private in-flight leisure (IFE) system on Emirates plane. There are two sorts of leisure system on Emirates: ICE and ICE Digital Widescreen.
In 2012, Emirates launched bigger excessive definition IFE screens in all lessons. The brand new IFE is the primary to be totally excessive definition, and in financial system, the screens are the most important supplied by any airline. The brand new IFE will solely be put in on the Airbus A380 fleet and the newly delivered Boeing 777s.
ICE (Data, Communication, Leisure) is the in-flight leisure system operated by Emirates.
Launched in 2003, ICE is out there on all new plane and now options 4,000 channels (on most flights) to all passengers. ICE is discovered on the airline’s Airbus A380-800, Boeing 777-200LR and Boeing 777-300ER.
In July 2007, Emirates launched ICE Digital Widescreen, an up to date model of ICE. It supplied over 1200 channels of pre-selected leisure out there to all passengers. ICE Digital Widescreen is out there on all new plane.
In 2015 Emirates upgraded its ICE – inflight entertaining system to the brand new eX3 system which incorporates new upgrades that improved passenger expertise, resembling Handset with extra controls, bigger screens, new sockets, some 3,500 channels of flicks, TV exhibits, music and video games, on demand and in a number of languages, new ICE options, resembling a Voyager app, Bluetooth audio and private video playback. That is fitted in 2009 onward plane B777 and A380 in addition to put in on new plane that will probably be delivered to the airline.
The system relies on the 3000i system from Panasonic Avionics Company. ICE offers passengers with a direct information hyperlink to BBC Information. ICE is the primary IFE system to be linked on to automated information updates. That is complemented by ICE’s Airshow moving-map software program from Rockwell Collins. Exterior cameras situated on the plane might be seen by any passenger, by means of the IFE system, throughout takeoff, cruise and touchdown. Emirates was additionally one of many first airways to introduce high-speed, in-flight Web service together with Singapore Airways, by putting in the Inmarsat’s satellite tv for pc system and have become the second airline on the planet to supply reside worldwide tv broadcasts utilizing the identical system.
ICE has a hyperlink to an in-flight electronic mail server which permits passengers to entry, ship or obtain emails for US$1 per message. ICE additionally helps a seat-to-seat chat service. In November 2006 the airline signed a take care of cell communications agency AeroMobile to permit in-flight use of cellphones to name or textual content folks on the bottom. The service was first launched in March 2008.
The ICE system consists of films, music, and video video games. ICE presents over 600 on-demand film titles, over 2000 video on demand and prerecorded tv channels, over 1000 hours of music and over 100 video-game titles. ICE might be accessed in additional than 40 languages together with English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, Korean, Tamil, Thai, Italian and Japanese. Since 2003 all leisure choices can be found on demand to all lessons with choices to pause, ahead, and rewind them. The leisure alternatives don’t embody LGBT-themed choices.
Emirates started to supply docking functionality for Apple Inc.’s iPod transportable music and video participant in mid-2007. This enables the machine’s battery to be charged, and integrates with Emirates’ in-flight leisure (IFE) system. The IFE system can play music, tv exhibits, or films saved on the iPod, and performance as a management system.
Passengers might check-in between two and 24 hours previous to at Dubai Worldwide Airport, in addition to at sure stations of the Dubai Metro. All Emirates Flights are actually operated solely from Terminal Three at Dubai Worldwide Airport
First and enterprise class passengers, and Skywards Platinum and Gold members have entry to 33 Emirates lounges in 32 cities. Skywards Silver members can use the lounges at Dubai Airport solely. At airports during which Emirates doesn’t function a departure lounge, a third-party departure lounge is often supplied for First and Enterprise class passengers and Skywards Platinum and Gold members.
Complimentary chauffeur pushed airport transfers can be found to Enterprise and First Class passengers in over 75 cities to airports.
In Dubai, Emirates makes use of the brand new BMW 5 Collection Touring automotive for Enterprise Class passengers, and the Mercedes-Benz S-Class sedan for First Class passengers.
In different international locations, the kind of car varies relying on the situation and repair supplier that the airline has contracted.
Emirates Skywards is the frequent-flyer program of Emirates launched within the yr 2000. This system had over 16 million members as of 2016. This system makes use of two separate factors methods – Skywards Miles because the forex that may be redeemed for advantages, and Tier Miles because the metric that determines a member’s tier standing.
There are 4 tiers – Blue, Silver, Gold and Platinum. As soon as any buyer registers, she or he turns into a Blue member. This registration is freed from any prices. Silver tier requires 25,000 Tier Miles, Gold tier requires 50,000 Tier Miles and Platinum tier requires 150,000 Tier Miles for qualification respectively.
Emirates Skywards has companions throughout airways, banks, motels, automotive leases and retail/way of life verticals.
As of 2016 Emirates has frequent-flyer partnerships with: Alaska Airways, easyJet, Japan Airways, Jet Airways, JetBlue, Jetstar, Korean Air, Malaysia Airways, Qantas, S7 Airways, South African Airways, TAP Portugal, Virgin America, Air Mauritius and GOL.
Emirates Skywards has partnered with Starwood Most popular Visitor (also referred to as SPG, the loyalty program of Starwood Inns and Resorts) to convey its members Your World Rewards. This enables Emirates Skywards members to earn each Skywards Miles and Starpoints (the loyalty forex for SPG program) once they both fly with Emirates to over 150 locations or keep at any of SPG’s 1,200 Starwood Inns and Resorts.
One other noteworthy partnership is Emirates Skywards partnership with Dubai Obligation Free (DDF) which was launched in 2016. This partnership permits members to spend their Skywards Miles at taking part Dubai Obligation Free retailers once they journey by means of Dubai airports. Members can redeem their Skywards Miles for duty-free merchandise at Dubai Worldwide airport and Al Maktoum Worldwide at Dubai South. Redemptions begin from 4,500 Skywards Miles (price AED 100), and members can immediately redeem Skywards Miles on the checkout. Every extra Dirham (AED) is equal to 45 Skywards Miles, and there’s no higher restrict to the variety of Skywards Miles that may be spent.
From 28 August 2016, Emirates Skywards enabled its members to make use of Miles or a mixture of Money+Miles (C+M) to pay for an EK printed fare as a type of fee.
This profit permits members to redeem a minimal of 2000 Skywards Miles and a most of whole quantity of base fare in Skywards Miles. Money+Miles is used as a type of fee for the bottom fare solely and excludes taxes and service imposed prices. This profit is out there on Emirates flights solely and never out there on another airways with which Emirates has a codeshare settlement.
Money+Miles presents Emirates Skywards members extra alternative and adaptability on the subject of spending their Skywards Miles. That is out there in all lessons and is relevant to all fare sorts.
The established community carriers in Europe and Australia, i.e. Air France-KLM, British Airways, Lufthansa, and Qantas, understand Emirates’ strategic resolution to reposition itself as a worldwide service as a serious risk as a result of it allows air travellers to bypass conventional airline hubs resembling London-Heathrow, Paris-CDG, and Frankfurt on their manner between Europe/North America and Asia/Australia by altering flights in Dubai as an alternative. These carriers additionally discover it troublesome to take care of the rising aggressive risk Emirates poses to their enterprise due to their a lot larger price base.
A few of these carriers, notably Air France and Qantas, have accused Emirates of receiving hidden state subsidies and of sustaining too cozy a relationship with Dubai’s airport authority and its aviation authority, each of that are additionally wholly state-owned entities that share the identical authorities proprietor with the airline. Qantas’ chairman claimed that Emirates is ready to scale back its borrowing prices beneath market charges by profiting from its authorities shareholders’ sovereign borrower standing. Emirates’ president disagrees and has additionally referred to United States airways chapter safety as being a considerable type of state help. The airline makes common earnings. In 2016, American Airways, Delta Airways, and United Airways have made comparable claims in addition to stating that they violate Open Skies however these conflicts have been resolved in Might 2018.
In Might 2010, Emirates Airline executives refuted claims that the service doesn’t pay taxes and receives substantial monetary help from the Dubai authorities. They claimed that the airline obtained $80m in money and sort within the 25 years because the airline was established and this was considerably decrease than what different nationwide carriers had obtained. Maurice Flanagan additionally claimed that Emirates incurred social prices of round $600m in 2009 and this included municipal taxes to the town of Dubai. The airline additionally paid a dividend of AED956m ($260m) in 2010, in comparison with AED2.9bn ($793m) in 2009 and annually the Authorities has obtained at the least $100m in dividends.
Emirates additionally faces competitors from different middle-eastern airways, primarily Qatar Airways and Abu Dhabi-based Etihad Airways.
Accidents and incidents
Emirates have skilled a number of incidents of plane (none with passenger or crew fatalities).
- On 9 April 2004, Emirates Flight 764, an Airbus A340-300 working from Johannesburg to Dubai sustained severe injury throughout takeoff when it didn’t turn out to be airborne earlier than the top of the runway, hanging RWY 25 strategy lights, inflicting 4 tires to burst which in flip threw particles into numerous components of the plane, finally damaging the flap drive mechanism. This rendered the flaps immovable within the takeoff place. The plane returned for an emergency touchdown throughout which the traditional braking system failed because of the injury. The plane was dropped at a cease solely 250 meters from the top of the three,400 meter runway utilizing reverse thrust and the choice braking system. Of their report, South African investigators discovered that the captain had used a incorrect take-off approach, and criticized Emirates coaching and rostering practices.
- On 20 March 2009, Emirates Flight 407, an Airbus A340-500 registered A6-ERG en route from Melbourne to Dubai didn’t take off correctly at Melbourne Airport, hitting a number of constructions on the finish of the runway earlier than finally climbing sufficient to return to the airport for a protected touchdown. There have been no accidents, however the incident was extreme sufficient to be categorized as an accident by the Australian Transport Security Bureau.
- On Three August 2016, Emirates Flight 521, a Boeing 777-300 registered A6-EMW arriving from Trivandrum Worldwide Airport, crash-landed and caught fireplace at Dubai Worldwide Airport at 12:44 PM native time. All 282 passengers and 18 crew on board survived the influence with some having minor accidents. Nonetheless, an airport firefighter died combating the blaze. The plane was destroyed by the hearth. Flight 521 was the primary hull loss within the historical past of Emirates.
- On 22 August 2019, an A380-861 registered A6-EOP was broken whereas inside a hangar. Throughout routine upkeep, the nostril gear slipped off a hydraulic jack and collapsed, inflicting in depth injury to the front-section of the fuselage. The plane was repaired over a interval of roughly six months and returned to service on Three March 2020.
- A Emirates moved its operations to its devoted Terminal Three at Dubai Worldwide Airport on 14 October 2008.
- B The variety of locations doesn’t embody cargo-only locations.
- C The Emirates Group doesn’t publish figures individually for Emirates SkyCargo or Emirates, each corporations’ monetary outcomes are aggregated.
- “THE EMIRATES GROUP ANNUAL REPORT 2019-20” (PDF). Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- “Annual Report 2019-20 Highlights”. Emirates Group. 10 Might 2020.
- GulfNews.com – Emirates and Dnata now below ICD
- “Largest airline within the Center East”.
- “Emirates plane cowl 432 million kilometres throughout the globe in six months”. Emirates.com. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- “Emirates SkyCargo”. The Emirates Group. Archived from the unique on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- “2016 Infographic” (PDF). Archived from the unique (PDF) on 5 July 2016. Retrieved Three July 2016.
- “Emirates Broadcasts 2009 Growth Plan” (Press launch). Emirates (airline). 18 February 2009. Archived from the unique on 25 July 2011. Retrieved Three August 2010.
- “Emirates Government”. Emirates Government. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- “The Emirates A380 fleet | Our fleet | The Emirates Expertise | Emirates Philippines”. Philippines. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
- “The Emirates Boeing 777 fleet | Our fleet | The Emirates Expertise | Emirates Philippines”. Philippines. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
- UAEinteract.com (31 December 2008). “Emirates and Dnata now below ICD UAE”. Uaeinteract.com. Archived from the unique on 25 Might 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Emirates and Dnata now below ICD”. Gulfnews. Archived from the unique on Three January 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Dubai strikes possession of Emirates, Dnata to ICD – Transportation”. ArabianBusiness.com. 31 December 2008. Archived from the unique on 25 November 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- Rise of the Emirates Empire CNN Cash, 1 October 2005
- “Emirates Airline 2014 Internet Revenue Jumps 40% On Decrease Oil Worth”. Gulf Enterprise.
- The Sunday Instances (Emirates boss heads for greater objectives), Instances Newspapers Ltd., London, 23 July 2006
- “The Emirates Group”. Emirates. Three January 2011. Retrieved Three January 2011.
- “Firm Overview”. The Emirates Group. 9 July 2009. Archived from the unique on 14 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- Bamber, G.J.; Gittell, J.H.; Kochan, T.A.; von Nordenflytch, A. (2009). “chapter 5”. Up within the Air: How Airways Can Enhance Efficiency by Participating their Staff. Cornell College Press, Ithaca.
- “Welcome from our Chairman | The Surroundings | About”. Emirates. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.[citation not found]
- “About Emirates | The Surroundings | A380 environmental info”. Emirates. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Enterprise: Good week – Unhealthy week”. Archived from the unique on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- “How we fly our planes | The Surroundings | About”. Emirates. 1 July 2009. Archived from the unique on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “WATS World Air Transport Statistics 2019” (PDF). Worldwide Air Transport Affiliation. 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- “From Modest Beginnings: The Progress of Civil Aviation within the Center East”. Journal of Center Jap Politics and Coverage.
- “Annual Stories | The Emirates Group”. Ekgroup.com. 9 July 2009. Archived from the unique on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Annual Report 2010–2011”. 10 Might 2011. Archived from the unique on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 10 Might 2011.
- “The Emirates Group Annual Report 2017–2018” (PDF). Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- “The Emirates Group Annual Report 2018–2019” (PDF). Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- “About Emirates | Emirates Promoting”. Emirates. Three June 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Tailor-made for New Period | Emirates | About Emirates | Information”. Emirates. 16 June 2008. Archived from the unique on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Up to date livery is revealed by Emirates-15/11/1999-Flight Day by day Information”. Flight Worldwide. 15 November 1999. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- Emirates sponsors cable automotive BBC Information 7 October 2011
- Spinnaker Tower rebranded with title of sponsor Emirates BBC Information 5 June 2015
- Portsmouth’s Spinnaker Tower: Undesirable pink paint given away BBC Information 6 July 2015
- “Cricket Australia | Sponsorships | About”. Emirates. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Lord’s Taverners | Sponsorships | About”. Emirates. 25 March 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Professional Arch Match | Sponsorships | About”. Emirates. 25 March 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “ICC Umpires | Sponsorships | About”. Emirates. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Emirates secures main worldwide cricket sponsorship – Model Republic Information”. Model Republic. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- Sambidge, Andy (19 Might 2015). “Emirates provides Benfica to sports activities sponsorship portfolio”. Arabian Enterprise. Retrieved 19 Might 2015.
Emirates Airline on Tuesday introduced a three-year shirt sponsorship settlement with Portugal’s most profitable soccer membership, Sport Lisboa e Benfica (Benfica).
- Chelsea Flying Excessive with Emirates Deal Sky Sports activities Information
- Affiliation, The Scottish Soccer. “The Scottish Soccer Affiliation”. www.scottishjuniorfa.com.
- “Emirates et l’Olympique Lyonnais annoncent un nouveau partenariat”. ol.fr (in French). Retrieved 7 February 2020.
- Doncaster rights up for grabs as ARC chases new sponsors Sydney Morning Herald 23 January 2012
- Lexus to sponsor 2018 Melbourne Cup Sky Racing 9 November 2017
- “Press Launch – Emirates Airline US Open Collection”. Archived from the unique on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- “Emirates Airways that includes Jennifer Aniston !”. YouTube. 5 October 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- “YouTube”. YouTube. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- “Emirates – Our Locations”. Emirates.com. 2015. Retrieved 23 Might 2015.
- Reece, Damian (13 August 2000). “Emirates poised to affix Star Alliance”. London: Telegrapg.co.uk. p. 11. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- Heasley, Andrew (1 November 2010). “Lone Emirates nonetheless flying excessive on luxurious”. The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- “Emirates Forges Codeshare Partnership with China Southern Airways”. www.emirates.com. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- Liu, Jim. “Emirates / flydubai schedules codeshare launch in late-Oct 2017”. Routesonline.
- Liu, Jim (30 Might 2018). “Emirates expands S7 Airways Russia codeshare from Might 2018”. Routesonline. Retrieved 30 Might 2018.
- “SpiceJet inks pact with Emirates for code-share partnership”. Moneycontrol. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- “SpiceJet Enters Into Codeshare Settlement With Dubai-Based mostly Emirates”. NDTV.
- “Emirates e Trenitalia con un solo biglietto” [Emirates and Trenitalia with just one ticket]. LaStampa.it (in Italian). 1 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
- “Emirates SkyCargo”. Skycargo.com. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- “Manufacturing Listing Search”. www.planespotters.web. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
- “Airbus launches new model of ACJ319 company jet”. Airbus. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
- “Airbus ACJ319: Purchaser’s and Investor’s Information | Company Jet Investor”. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- “Emirates VIP constitution”. Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- “777 Mannequin Abstract”. Boeing. October 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- “Boeing Launches 777X with Report-Breaking Orders and Commitments” (Press launch). Boeing. 17 November 2013.
- Shweta Jain (Four October 2017). “Emirates will probably be first airline to obtain 777X, says Boeing”. Gulf Information Aviation.
- “Emirates locations US$15.1 billion order for 40 Boeing 787 Dreamliners at 2017 Dubai Airshow”. www.emirates.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- Scott Hamilton (Four February 2019). “787-10 engines too small for Emirates”. Leeham Information.
- “Emirates indicators deal for 40 A330-900s, 30 A350-900s” (Press launch). Emirates. 14 February 2019.
- “Airbus scraps A380 large jet as gross sales stoop”. 14 February 2019.
- “A350 order confirms Emirates A380 cancellation”. Flight International. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- “Emirates to take 30 787-9s and trims 777X deal”. Flight International. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- Bewicke, Henry. “Remind Me: What’s Occurring With Emirates’ Boeing 777X Order?”. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- “First Class Personal Suites | First Class | Cabin Options”. Emirates Hong Kong. Retrieved 23 Might 2019.
- “Mercedes and Nasa assist Emirates make luxurious suites”. South China Morning Submit. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 23 Might 2019.
- “A380 Personal Suites | Emirates A380 First Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with”. Emirates. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “A380 Bathe Spa | Emirates A380 First Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with”. Emirates. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “A380 First Class Social Space & onboard Lounge | Emirates A380 First Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with”. Emirates. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Emirates First Class Cabins impressed by Mercedes-Benz S-Class – Boeing 777”. Beyondbusinesstravel.com. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- “Emirates’ new Boeing 777 top notch suites: what we all know to this point – Australian Enterprise Traveller”. Ausbt.com.au. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- Tom Otley (12 November 2017). “Emirates reveals new cabins for Boeing B777 fleet – Enterprise Traveller – The main journal for frequent flyers”. Businesstraveller.com. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- “Emirates hints at design of recent A380 top notch suites”. Australian Enterprise Traveller. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- “A380 Flat Beds | Emirates A380 Enterprise Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with”. Emirates. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Emirates Enterprise Class cabin options | Cabin Options | Your journey begins right here”. Emirates. Retrieved 23 Might 2019.
- “Emirates A380 Seating Plan”. airreview.com. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- Chui, Sam. “An Replace of Emirates Premium Economic system, New Route, Your World Rewards”. SamChui.com. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- McWhirter, Alex. “Emirates to lastly launch premium financial system in 2020?”. Enterprise Traveller. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- Anderson, Zaref. “Emirates Unveils Boeing 777X Enterprise Class”. Aeronautics. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- “Flying with Emirates | Cabin Options | Economic system Class | New Era Economic system Seating”. Emirates. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “A380 New Era Seating | Emirates A380 Economic system Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with”. Emirates. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “A380 Leisure | Emirates A380 Economic system Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with”. Emirates. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- DUBAI, U.A.E., 17 July 2007 –Emirates’ onboard meals
- Emily Manthei; Demand Media. “Forms of Meals on Emirates Airline”. Journey Suggestions – USA At present. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Debbie Douglas. “Crop One and Emirates Flight Catering Joint Enterprise Will Construct Largest Vertical Farm within the World”. Crop One Holdings, Inc. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- “E-book flights with Virgin Atlantic” (PDF). Virgin-atlantic.com. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- “Arabian Aerospace – Emirates upgrades IFE system and raises the bar with ICE”. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- “ice | Entretenimiento a bordo | Su viaje comienza aquí”. España.
- “Emirates A380 superjumbo airplane”. Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the unique on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Helps Develop New Subtitle Know-how For Inflight Leisure System | Emirates | About Emirates | Information”. Emirates. 31 October 2007. Archived from the unique on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Singapore Airways and Connexion by Boeing Finalize Plans for Excessive-Pace, In-Flight Connectivity”. Boeing. 2 December 2004. Archived from the unique on 1 November 2007.
- Emirates New Leisure System Asia Journey Suggestions, Wednesday 11 April 2007
- “Cellular calls on Emirates flights”. BBC. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2008.
- Emirates Traveler Data Archived 27 October 2007 on the Wayback Machine Emirates, Wednesday 11 April 2007.
- “Apple: 6 Airways To Provide In-Flight iPod Connection In ’07[permanent dead link].” De Weese, J. The Wall Avenue Journal. 14 November 2006.[dead link]
- “Phrases & Situations | E-book your Dubai Stopover now | Dubai Stopovers | Locations & Presents”. Emirates. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- “Emirates Airline Terminal 3 | Dubai Worldwide Airport”. Emirates United Arab Emirates. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- “Annual Report 2011–12”. Emirates.com. 5 October 2012. Archived from the unique on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- “Emirates Worldwide Lounges”. Emirates.com. 20 December 2011. Archived from the unique on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- “Chauffeur-drive | The Emirates Expertise | Emirates”. International. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
- “Historical past | About Emirates | Emirates”. Emirates. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- “Skywards | Emirates Airline”. Emirates Airline. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- “Our Companions | Emirates Skywards | Emirates”. Emirates. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- “See extra world with Money+Miles | Emirates Skywards | Emirates”. Emirates. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- “Europe’s flag carriers assault Emirates’ enlargement, Canada blocks UAE airways and dispute escalates | Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation – CAPA”. Centreforaviation.com. Archived from the unique on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Center East airways change the kangaroo route-20 September 2007. Travelmole.com. Retrieved on 28 November 2010.
- Monetary Instances (Row erupts between Qantas and Emirates), UK Version, London, 9 November 2005
- McGinley, Shane (12 Might 2010). “Prime Emirates exec slams gov’t safety claims”. Arabian Enterprise. Archived from the unique on 15 Might 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- “UAE passes 70 million passengers; Emirates, Etihad and Air Arabia networks proceed to develop”. anna.aero. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- “ASN Plane accident Airbus A340 A6-ERN”. Aviation Security Community. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- David Learmount (11 January 2006). “Emirates censured in Airbus A340 Johannesburg runway overrun probe”. Flightglobal. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Noah Browning (Three August 2016). “Emirates Airline flight crash-lands at Dubai airport: Authorities”. Reuters. Retrieved Three August 2016.
- “Aircraft makes emergency touchdown at Dubai Worldwide Airport”. Gulf Information. Al Nasir Publisions. Three August 2016. Retrieved Three August 2016.
- “Aircraft crash-lands at Dubai airport”. Three August 2016 – through www.bbc.com.
Emirates profile on Dhow Internet
- The Economist, 2005/6. London, UK: The Economist Newspaper Ltd. (The Economist on-line)
- Monetary Instances, 29 October 2005. London, UK: UK Version. (Monetary Instances on-line)
- Monetary Instances, 19 July 2006. London, UK: UK Version. (Monetary Instances on-line)
- The Sunday Instances, 23 July 2006. London, UK. (The Sunday Instances on-line)
- Flight Worldwide, 25–31 July 2006. Sutton, UK: Reed Enterprise Data Ltd. (Flight Worldwide on-line)
- “Emirates – 25 Years of Excellence: Constructing a worldwide community”. Airliner World. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing: 28–37. October 2010. ISSN 1465-6337. (Airliner World on-line)