Inter-city passenger rail operator in Canada

By way of Rail Canada (reporting mark VIA) (; usually shortened to By way of Rail or By way of; styled corporately as VIA Rail Canada) is an impartial Crown company that’s mandated to function intercity passenger rail service in Canada. It receives an annual subsidy from Transport Canada to offset the price of working companies connecting distant communities.

By way of Rail operates over 500 trains per week throughout eight Canadian provinces and 12,500 kilometres (7,800 mi) of observe, 97 per cent of which is owned and maintained by different railway firms, largely by Canadian Nationwide Railway (CN). By way of Rail carried roughly 4.39 million passengers in 2017, the bulk alongside the Hall routes connecting the key cities of the Quebec Metropolis–Windsor Hall, and had an on-time efficiency of 73 per cent.[1]

Historical past[edit]


CNR Rapido practice automobiles in Pickering, July 1968. In an effort to draw riders, new practice automobiles had been acquired by CN within the 1960s.

Yearly passenger ranges on Canada’s passenger trains peaked at 60 million throughout World Conflict II. Following the warfare the expansion of air journey and the private vehicle triggered important lack of mode share for Canada’s passenger practice operators. By the 1960s it was apparent to each Canadian Nationwide Railway (CN) and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) that passenger trains had been not economically viable. CP sought to divest itself of its passenger trains, however federal authorities regulators and politicians balked, forcing them to keep up a minimal service by means of the 1970s, with the federal government subsidizing as much as 80 p.c of losses. CN, being a Crown company at the moment, was inspired by the federal authorities and political pursuits to spend money on passenger trains. Revolutionary advertising and marketing schemes corresponding to Purple, White, and Blue fares, new gear corresponding to scenic dome automobiles and rail diesel automobiles, and companies corresponding to Rapido and the UAC TurboTrain trains quickly elevated numbers of passengers, reversing earlier declines.[3]:4–5

These will increase proved non permanent; by 1977, whole passenger numbers had dropped under 5 million. The decline of passenger rail grew to become a federal election situation in 1974 when the federal government of Pierre Trudeau promised to implement a nationwide provider just like Amtrak in the USA. Beginning in 1976, CN started branding its passenger companies with the bilingual identify By way of or By way of CN. The By way of emblem began appearing on CN passenger locomotives and automobiles, whereas nonetheless carrying CN logos as properly. That September, By way of printed a single timetable with data on each CN and CP trains, marking the primary time that Canadians might discover all main passenger trains in a single publication. In 1977, CN underwent a dramatic restructuring when it positioned numerous non-core freight railway actions into separate subsidiaries, corresponding to ferries underneath CN Marine, and passenger trains underneath By way of Rail which was subsequently renamed By way of Rail Canada.[3]:6–9

Formation and early years[edit]

A By way of Rail practice at Cochrane station in August 1978. Earlier that 12 months, CNR and CPR passenger rail service had been spun-off into By way of Rail Canada.

On 12 January 1977, CN spun off its passenger companies as a separate Crown company, By way of Rail Canada. At its inception, By way of acquired all CN passenger automobiles and locomotives. Following a number of months of negotiation, on 29 October 1978, By way of assumed all CP passenger practice operations and took possession of automobiles and locomotives. Passenger practice companies which weren’t included within the creation of By way of Rail included these supplied by BC Rail, Algoma Central Railway, Ontario Northland Railway, Quebec North Shore & Labrador Railway, numerous city commuter practice companies operated by CN and CP, and remaining CN passenger companies in Newfoundland. At the moment, By way of didn’t personal any trackage and needed to pay right-of-way charges to CN and CP, typically being the one consumer of rural department traces.[citation needed]

By way of initially had an amazing number of gear — a lot of it in want of substitute — and operated routes stretching from Sydney, Nova Scotia to Prince Rupert, British Columbia and north to Churchill, Manitoba. Over 150 scheduled trains per week had been in operation, together with transcontinental companies, regional trains, and hall companies.[citation needed]

Whereas By way of stays an impartial federal Crown company mandated to function as a enterprise, it’s hindered by the truth that it was created by an Order in Council of the Privy Council, and never from laws handed by Parliament. Had By way of been enabled by laws, the corporate could be permitted to hunt funding on the open cash markets as different Crown companies corresponding to CN have completed previously. It’s largely because of this that critics say By way of — like Amtrak in the USA — is weak to federal price range cuts and continues to reply first to its political masters, versus the enterprise selections wanted to make sure the viability of intercity passenger rail service.[4]


The LRC in Port Hope, October 1981. By way of Rail ordered the LRCs within the 1980s to exchange its older practice automobiles.

Better numbers of passengers wouldn’t be By way of’s saviour. In 1981, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau’s authorities endorsed Minister of Transport Jean-Luc Pépin’s plan which slash By way of’s price range, resulting in a 40 p.c discount within the firm’s operations. Often sold-out trains such because the Tremendous Continental (which lowered By way of to working just one transcontinental practice, The Canadian) and the favored Atlantic had been discontinued.[citation needed]

By way of additionally sought to scale back its reliance on over 30-year-old second-hand gear and positioned a major order with Bombardier Transportation for brand new high-speed locomotives and automobiles which might be utilized in its hall trains. The LRC (Gentle, Fast, Snug) locomotives and automobiles used superior know-how corresponding to lively tilt to extend pace, however proved troublesome and took a number of years to work out issues (by 1990 solely a handful of LRC locomotives remained in service which had been subsequently retired by the arrival of the GE Genesis locomotives in 2001).[citation needed]

The election of Brian Mulroney’s Progressive Conservative authorities in 1984 introduced an preliminary buddy to By way of, when a number of of Mulroney’s commitments included rescinding the By way of cuts of 1981 by restoring the Tremendous Continental (underneath strain from his western caucus), and the Atlantic (underneath strain from his japanese caucus and then-Saint John mayor Elsie Wayne). Prime Minister Mulroney’s authorities gave By way of funding to refurbish a few of its automobiles, and buy new locomotives, this time a extra dependable mannequin from Basic Motors diesel division.[citation needed]

It was throughout this time on Eight February 1986, that By way of’s eastbound Tremendous Continental collided with a CN freight practice close to Hinton, Alberta, on account of the freight practice crew lacking a sign gentle, leading to 23 deaths.

By the late 1980s, inflation and different rising prices had been taking their toll on federal budgets and within the Mulroney authorities’s 1989 price range, By way of once more noticed its price range slashed, surpassing even the 1981 cuts underneath Trudeau.


A By way of GMD FP7 leads the Canadian in Regina, Might 1982. The Canadian was rerouted within the 1990s, ending service to a number of cities, like Calgary.

Minister of Transport Benoît Bouchard oversaw the discount in service on 15 January 1990, when By way of’s operations had been lowered by 55 p.c.[citation needed] Companies such because the Tremendous Continental had been once more discontinued, together with quite a few disparate rural companies corresponding to in Nova Scotia’s Annapolis Valley and Cape Breton Island, western Canada, and within the hall. The Canadian was additionally moved from its dwelling rails on CP to the northerly CN route (beforehand plied by the Tremendous Continental). The shift to the less-populated (and fewer scenic) route between Toronto and Vancouver severed main western cities corresponding to Regina, Saskatchewan and Calgary, Alberta from the passenger rail community and flared western bitterness towards the Authorities of Canada.[citation needed]

The official justification for the rerouting was that the trains would serve extra distant communities, however the focus of ridings held by the Progressive Conservatives alongside the CN route attracted the cost that the transfer was mainly political. Harvie André, one in every of Alberta’s federal cupboard ministers who represented Calgary, acknowledged publicly that he didn’t care if he by no means noticed a passenger practice once more in his life.[citation needed]

The Mulroney cuts allowed By way of to consolidate its fleet of automobiles and locomotives, leading to a fleet of refurbished chrome steel (HEP-1 and HEP-2 rebuilds, for head finish energy) and LRC automobiles, in addition to rationalizing its locomotive fleet with GM and Bombardier (LRC) items.[citation needed]

By way of was not spared from additional cutbacks in Jean Chrétien’s Liberal authorities elected in 1993. Minister of Finance Paul Martin’s first price range in 1994 noticed additional By way of cuts which noticed the favored Atlantic dropped from the schedule, focusing the japanese transcontinental service on the Ocean. CP had offered off a big portion of observe the Atlantic had operated on and, as By way of at the moment was solely mandated to supply passenger companies on tracks belonging to CN or CP, the route was discontinued.[citation needed] This transfer was seen as considerably controversial and politically motivated because the principal cities benefiting from the Atlantic’s service had been Sherbrooke, Quebec and Saint John, New Brunswick, the place the one two Progressive Conservative Get together Members of Parliament in Canada had been elected within the 1993 federal election through which Chrétien’s Liberal Get together took energy. The Ocean service which was preserved at present operates on observe between Montreal and Halifax working by means of the decrease St. Lawrence River valley and northern New Brunswick. The Minister of Transport in Chrétien’s authorities on the time, Douglas Younger, was elected from a district that included Bathurst, New Brunswick, on the Ocean’s route. A distant By way of service to Quebec’s Gaspé Peninsula, the Chaleur was additionally spared from being reduce presently, regardless of carrying fewer passengers than the Atlantic.[citation needed]

Renaissance funding[edit]

By way of Rail P42DC pulling LRC coaches in the direction of Montreal

By the late 1990s, with a rail-friendly Minister of Transport, David Collenette, in workplace, there have been modest funding will increase to By way of. Hall companies had been improved with new and sooner trains, a weekly vacationer practice, The Bras d’Or, returned By way of service to Cape Breton Island for the primary time for the reason that 1990 cuts, and a dedication was made to proceed working on Vancouver Island, however western Canada continued to languish with the one service offered by the Canadian and some distant service trains in northern BC and Manitoba.[citation needed]

In a major new funding program dubbed “Renaissance”, a fleet of unused passenger automobiles which had been constructed for deliberate Nightstar sleeper companies between areas in the UK and Continental Europe by way of the Channel Tunnel had been bought and tailored following the cancellation of the Nightstar mission. The brand new “Renaissance” automobiles had been swiftly nicknamed déplaisance (“displeasure”) by French-speaking workers and clients, attributable to early issues adapting the gear for Canadian use. Doorways and bathrooms froze in chilly Atlantic Canada temperatures, leading to delays and repair interruptions.[5] New diesel-electric P42DC locomotives bought from Basic Electrical (GE) allowed the withdrawal of older locomotives, together with remaining LRCs. LRC passenger automobiles had been retained and continued to supply a lot of the Hall service. This growth to By way of’s fleet has permitted scheduling flexibility. Moreover, many passenger stations have been remodelled into passenger-friendly locations, with a number of internet hosting co-located transit and regional bus hubs for numerous municipalities.[citation needed]


A By way of locomotive leads the Worldwide with Amtrak coaches. The Worldwide route was collectively operated by By way of and Amtrak from 1982 to 2004.

On 24 October 2003, federal Minister of Transport David Collenette introduced $700 million in new funding over the following 5 years. This funding was under the $Three billion wanted to implement a high-speed rail proposal within the Quebec Metropolis-Windsor Hall nicknamed ViaFast; nevertheless, the funding was meant to “present for sooner, extra frequent and extra dependable passenger service throughout Canada… [preserving] the choice for greater pace rail, such because the By way of Quick proposal,” stated Collenette. This new mission was to be referred to as “Renaissance II”.[6]

On 18 December 2003, Liberal Prime Minister (PM) Paul Martin introduced a freeze in federal spending on all main capital tasks, together with By way of’s five-year $700 million “Renaissance II” program introduced simply six weeks earlier by outgoing PM Chrétien’s administration. Critics of Martin’s cuts claimed that he was in a definite battle of curiosity as his household by means of Canada Steamship Strains and numerous subsidiary and affiliated firms had as soon as had a major funding within the Voyageur Colonial Bus Strains, an intercity bus line in Quebec and japanese Ontario that could be a key competitor of By way of.[citation needed]

Route cuts underneath the Martin authorities included the withdrawal of the seasonal Bras d’Or vacationer practice, which ran for the final time in September 2004, and the Montreal-Toronto in a single day Enterprise, which was discontinued in September 2005. The Sarnia-Chicago Worldwide was additionally discontinued in April 2004 by Amtrak. By way of’s portion of the route from Toronto-Sarnia remained in operation as By way of was in a position to make use of their very own gear to function the practice.[citation needed]

Sponsorship scandal[edit]

The federal Auditor Basic’s report launched publicly on 10 February 2004 confirmed what gave the impression to be a legal misdirection of presidency funds meant for promoting to key Quebec-based supporters of the Liberal Get together of Canada. Included within the Auditor Basic’s report was the truth that By way of was used as one in every of a number of federal authorities departments, companies, and Crown companies to funnel these illicit funds. Pressured to behave on the Auditor Basic’s report attributable to its political implications, Martin’s authorities suspended By way of President Marc LeFrançois on 24 February 2004, giving him an ultimatum of a number of days to defend himself in opposition to allegations within the report or face additional disciplinary motion.[citation needed]

A number of days later throughout LeFrançois’s suspension, former By way of advertising and marketing division worker Myriam Bédard claimed she was fired a number of years earlier when she questioned firm billing practices in coping with promoting firms. (In accordance with CBC Information, an arbitrator’s report later concluded that Bédard had voluntarily left By way of.) She was publicly belittled by By way of CEO Jean Pelletier in nationwide media on 27 February 2004. Pelletier retracted his statements however on 1 March, Pelletier was fired. By 5 March, after failing to defend himself adequately in opposition to the allegations within the Auditor Basic’s report, LeFrançois was fired as properly.[citation needed]

Rising issues and reinstated funding[edit]

A By way of F40PH-2D in Jasper, February 2011. By way of’s fleet of F40PH-2Ds had been refurbished within the late-2000s to fulfill emission requirements.

The reversal of funding in 2003 led to a backlog of deferred upkeep and left By way of unable to exchange or refurbish life-expired locomotives and rolling inventory. Conversely, By way of ridership elevated from 3.8 million in 2005 to 4.1 million in 2006.[7] On 11 October 2007, Finance Minister Jim Flaherty introduced federal authorities funding of $691.9 million over 5 years (of which $519 million for capital tasks), and the rest further working funding. The capital funding was earmarked to refurbish By way of’s fleet of 54 F40PH-2 locomotives to fulfill new emissions requirements and lengthen their service lives by 15–20 years, refurbish the interiors of LRC coaches, cut back observe capability bottlenecks and pace restrictions within the Windsor-Quebec Metropolis Hall, and make repairs to numerous stations throughout the community.[8]

This announcement was comparable in content material to the earlier “Renaissance II” bundle, and as soon as once more was criticized for not together with new gear or funding for companies exterior the Windsor-Quebec Metropolis Hall. Shortly afterwards, paperwork obtained by The Canadian Press underneath the Entry to Info Act revealed that delays attributable to gear failures had risen by 60 p.c for the reason that earlier 12 months. The corporate attributed this to issues with the getting older F40 locomotive fleet.[9]

On 27 January 2009, the Authorities of Canada introduced in its 2009 Financial Motion Plan that it could improve funding to By way of by $407 million to assist enhancements, together with elevated practice frequencies and enhanced on-time efficiency and pace, significantly within the Montreal-Ottawa-Toronto hall.[10]

On 21 July 2009, By way of introduced its engineers would go on strike as of 24 July if no deal was reached by then, and commenced cancelling all trains in anticipation of strike. The strike formally started at midnight on July 24 after it grew to become clear that no deal had been reached. Engineers had been with no contract since 31 December 2006.[needs update] Full service resumed on 27 July 2009.[11] A further strike by the Canadian Auto Staff (CAW) union, representing round 2,200 workers, was deliberate to start on Four July 2010, however was referred to as off after the union and By way of reached a three-year contract.[12]


By way of skilled extra service cuts on the daybreak of the 2010. In March 2011, the every day Victoria–Courtenay The Malahat RDC service on Vancouver Island was suspended indefinitely attributable to deteriorating observe (it has but to renew). By 27 June 2012, By way of introduced further service cuts attributable to funding points:

  • The Canadian was lowered from three days per week to 2 days per week starting November 2012; service operated at twice weekly November–April throughout and thrice weekly Might–October till 2019. In 2019, solely two trains per week operated on the total route, whereas the third practice ran solely between Vancouver and Edmonton as soon as per week in every course.
  • The Ocean was lowered from six days per week to thrice weekly starting October 2012.
  • Hall companies west of Toronto had been lowered, with weekend service reductions to Montreal and Ottawa, Ontario.[13]
  • Hall companies to Sarnia and the Niagara area had been lowered to as soon as every day in October 2012, with further taking impact in July 2012. Sarnia was left with a single every day round-trip.[14]Niagara Falls misplaced all service besides the joint Amtrak-By way of every day New York Metropolis-Toronto Maple Leaf service,[15] though Toronto regional commuter service was later offered by GO Transit.
  • Hall companies to Kitchener,[16] London,[17] and Windsor[18] had been lowered beginning in October 2012, with a minimum of two every day spherical journeys surviving.
  • In September 2013, the Gaspé service, which had been “bustituted” in 2011, was suspended indefinitely.[19]

To deal with declining on-time efficiency attributable to freight practice site visitors on By way of routes, MP Olivia Chow drafted a personal member’s invoice in 2014 that will reorganize the corporate and permit the federal government to drive freight rail carriers to provide scheduling precedence to public passenger rail. Nonetheless, as with most non-public member’s payments, it was not handed.[20][21]

Service enhancements[edit]

The Quebec-Windsor hall was the main focus of service restorations and implements. A direct Ottawa-Quebec Metropolis practice was restored, with further journeys between Ottawa, Montreal and Toronto being added. In 2016, LRC passenger automobiles used for the hall had been refurbished; within the By way of 1 class, this included single seating.

A passenger automobile adorned in Canada 150 livery, August 2017. For the nation’s sesquicentennial, By way of launched a particular youth rail go.

In March 2017, By way of introduced the discharge of a brand new class of rail go legitimate for the month of July 2017 (similar to Canada’s sesquicentennial celebrations) for youth aged 18–25, costing $150 (a number of hundred {dollars} cheaper than a comparable rail go would sometimes value). A bigger than anticipated response resulted within the non permanent lack of performance for By way of’s web site. Regardless of plans to cap the variety of passes offered at 1867 (the 12 months of Canadian Confederation), over 4,000 passes had been finally offered. The corporate obtained important backlash, because it initially appeared there was no restrict on the variety of passes obtainable.[22]


Excessive winter situations had at all times been an operational hazard for By way of, with the Ottawa routes and Canadian being most weak.[23] Equally, summer season repairs and building usually delayed trains systemwide, although schedules had been often adjusted in an try to attenuate delays.[23]

Nonetheless, by 2018, freight site visitors on the closely used CN traces had develop into a major concern for sustaining on-time service.[24][25] This situation arose attributable to typical siding sizes, which weren’t lengthy sufficient to accommodate fashionable freight trains. Passenger trains had been consequently positioned on sidings every time two trains handed (somewhat than freights), which meant that passenger trains didn’t have precedence on CN traces.[26][27] The difficulty existed in all components of the By way of community, though it grew to become most excessive on the Canadian, the place delays elevated from a mean of 5 hours to as a lot as 50 over the four-day journey.[28][27][26] By way of finally addressed the difficulty by eliminating its late coverage on its cross-Canada trains however retaining it for the Hall routes.[29][25] Nonetheless, By way of continues to compensate inconvenienced company with essential lodge lodging previous to the journey, in addition to guaranteeing continued transportation the place a connection to a second By way of practice had been missed.[25] As such, compensation prices had been factored into By way of’s 2018 price range.

By the tip of 2018, the total route time on the Canadian had been elevated twice to soak up freight delays.[24][30][25] The second extension – to 5 days – has been largely profitable in reducing delays, and likewise allowed for a daytime transit of Hells Gate in BC, beforehand transversed in a single day in the dead of night. The scheduled elevated working time truly resulted within the Canadian arriving early on a number of events.[31][32] Nonetheless, Toronto-Vancouver service frequencies had been lowered to solely twice weekly throughout peak summer season interval, with a 3rd Toronto- Edmonton run suspended completely.

On 12 December 2018, By way of introduced that it had awarded a contract to Siemens Canada for 32 practice units to exchange your entire Quebec Metropolis-Windsor Hall fleet.[33] This marked the completion of a procurement course of launched following the 2018 federal price range, which allotted funding for the fleet substitute. In the course of the request-for-proposals stage, By way of had narrowed the potential suppliers right down to Siemens, Bombardier, Talgo and Stadler Rail. Siemens was finally chosen after ending first on the important thing standards, which included the power to ship in a well timed trend, the standard of the product providing, and the value. The brand new fleet will include Siemens SCB-40 locomotives hauling a mix of coaches, business-class automobiles, and cab automobiles from the Siemens Viaggio Consolation sequence to permit bi-directional operation. The trains will probably be constructed at Siemens plant in Sacramento, California, and Siemens dedicated to together with a minimum of 20 p.c Canadian content material within the ultimate product. The order consists of an choice for a further 16 practice units to be exercised if the federal authorities approves By way of’s high-frequency dedicated-corridor mission.[34] The primary practice set is to be delivered for testing by winter 2021, with the primary units in service by 2022 and all trains in service by 2024. The supply of the brand new trains will permit By way of to retire LRC and Renaissance gear from the hall, and re-allocate the HEP2 and corridor-based HEP1 automobiles to different components of the community.

Funds and administration[edit]

By way of is operated as an impartial crown company and receives a subsidy from the Minister of Transport to supply service to distant communities. By way of operates greater than 500 trains per week from coast to coast. The sum of $369 million was earned from passenger revenues in 2018. Over 4.74 million passenger voyages had been taken in 2018. An on-time ratio of 71 p.c was achieved in that 12 months. Over 3,115 individuals had been employed by By way of by the tip of 2018.

By way of president Yves Desjardins-Siciliano acknowledged that the subsidy for passenger rail journey in Canada in 2015 was about 200 p.c: for each $1 travellers spend on fares, Canada pays $2 in subsidy.[35]

As of Might 2019, the Chair of the Board of Administrators is Françoise Bertrand, whereas the President and CEO is Cynthia Garneau; there are 11 different individuals on the Board of Administrators on the similar 12 months. The Annual accounts of By way of are audited to GAAP rules by the Auditor-Basic of Canada, underneath the Monetary Administration Act. By way of Rail Canada Inc. is included underneath the CBCA and is topic to revenue taxes, ought to a revenue ever be declared by it. The company had $9,300,000 in share capital as of 2018. By way of additionally obtained $394.Four million of presidency funding in 2018.

In Might 2019, Cynthia Garneau was appointed as the brand new CEO of By way of. She changed Yves Desjardins-Siciliano, who accomplished his five-year mandate on Eight Might 2019.

Growth plans[edit]


By way of has explored the introduction of every day regional service in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (connecting Halifax, Moncton, and Campbellton) to enrich the thrice-weekly Ocean service to Montreal. As of 2017, By way of’s assertion was that it was “exploring an japanese intercity hall service” and that additional developments had been depending on infrastructure upgrades and gear testing.[36]

By way of has additionally expressed curiosity in working commuter rail service on CN tracks in Halifax, Nova Scotia that will run from town’s downtown station so far as Windsor Junction.[36][37] Nonetheless, in June 2019, Halifax regional council voted unanimously to direct workers “to not pursue commuter rail service additional…attributable to infrastructure necessities and related monetary implications, in addition to operational issues and restraints”.[38][39]

Excessive Frequency Rail Mission (HFR)[edit]

By way of has developed a $4.Four billion “high-frequency rail” service plan as a response to delays confronted by sharing tracks with freight trains. The plan opts for a devoted observe between Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec Metropolis, providing extra frequent trains (though working at typical speeds). In Ontario, By way of would run a brand new rail line on at present underused tracks from Toronto to Ottawa by means of Peterborough as an alternative of Kingston. In Quebec, hall trains would journey from Montreal to Quebec Metropolis by means of Trois-Rivières on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River somewhat than on the south shore by means of Drummondville.[21] By way of claims this may permit them to run extra trains within the hall, cut back journey instances by 25% and enhance on-time efficiency to over 95%.[40]

Feasibility research have been funded by the federal authorities for the reason that 2016 price range, and the 2018 price range allowed for the funding of the fleet substitute portion of the plan, although not the devoted rail traces.[41] Opposite to expectations, the 2019 federal price range didn’t embody a ultimate determination for brand new funds for HFR.[42] Nonetheless, in January 2020 By way of introduced the hiring of a three way partnership of engineering corporations AECOM and Arup to undertake an in depth engineering examine of the proposal.[43]

Service suspensions[edit]

Two former By way of routes — The Malahat (service resulted in 2011) and Chaleur (service resulted in 2013) — are at present suspended attributable to poor observe situations. By way of plans to reintroduce service as soon as observe upgrades have been accomplished.[36] The Quebec authorities introduced funds for repairs to Chaleur trackage in 2017, with a completion date acknowledged solely as being “a number of years away.”[44] No concrete plan to revive trackage alongside The Malahat has been introduced as of 2020.

A By way of F40PH-2D main the Winnipeg-Churchill practice, November 2012. The service was suspended from Might 2017 to December 2018 for observe upkeep.

The Winnipeg–Churchill practice was disrupted by extreme spring flooding on 23 Might 2017, when the Hudson Bay Railway tracks had been broken past commonplace upkeep. Winnipeg–Gillam service continued.[45]OmniTRAX, the unique proprietor of the observe, refused to make the repairs, saying that the observe was not viable, regardless of the matching federal subsidy.[46] The railroad was Churchill’s solely land hyperlink to southern Canada, and its loss resulted in important cost-of-living will increase for residents alongside the hall (a stranded practice was eliminated by ship in October 2017).[46]

Service to Churchill was restored in late 2018, after the tracks, Churchill port, and Churchill marine tank farm had been bought by Arctic Gateway Group.[47][48] The federal authorities assisted within the buy with $74 million of devoted northern infrastructure cash up entrance and a further dedication of $43 million over 10 years.[49][47] To revive passenger rail service earlier than winter, Arctic Gateway repaired 29 washouts in 35 days. Though a particular By way of practice arrived in Churchill on 1 November, the primary common By way of practice arrived in Churchill on Four December, 560 days after service initially ceased.[50][51]

On February 13, 2020, following a number of days of blockades through the nationwide Coastal GasLink Pipeline protests, By way of Rail introduced that it could be shutting down most of its passenger practice service throughout Canada till additional discover, except the Sudbury–White River practice line and the Winnipeg–Churchill practice between Churchill and The Pas.[52][53][54] Later in 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, practically all By way of Rail trains had been suspended except the Winnipeg-Churchill practice in addition to one practice every day on every route throughout the hall.[55][56] Together with the earlier protest-related service suspensions, it’s the most intensive non permanent discount of service in By way of Rail’s historical past.

Travelling on By way of[edit]

Journey on By way of varies by area as a lot as class. Lots of By way of’s insurance policies and protocols are the product of working a nationwide practice system with various pressures and wishes of various passengers, communities, and contexts. The outcomes are wide-ranging journey experiences relying on the space and placement of the journey.

Unscheduled stops[edit]

Some By way of routes exterior the hall supply the choice of unscheduled stops at locations the place there isn’t a station. With 48 hours discover, a passenger can request to entrain or detrain at a specified milepost. This feature is out there on all of the Journey Routes, in addition to the Canadian between Capreol and Winnipeg.[57]

Lessons of service[edit]

Financial system-class seating in a By way of Rail coach automobile, with one totally reclined
  • Escape Fare: Discounted seats from economic system class, with restrictions on refunds and exchanges.
  • Financial system: Financial system class seating in coach automobiles. Passengers are normally assigned seats besides trains 54, 97, 98, 650 and 651, the place passengers are separated based mostly on practice automobiles in keeping with vacation spot.[58] Snacks and drinks are offered by workers with service carts, in a lounge automobile, or in a restaurant automobile. Free Wi-Fi entry is offered within the Hall and on the Ocean.[59]
  • Enterprise: (previously referred to as By way of 1): First-class seating obtainable on most Hall trains in southern Quebec and Ontario. Enterprise class affords passengers individually reserved seats, extra spacious seating, window blinds, inclusive scorching three-course meals full with complimentary wine and liqueurs, in-seat AC energy shops, and free Wi-Fi entry. Enterprise-class passengers are additionally granted precedence boarding and entry to enterprise lounges at main city stations.[60]
  • Touring: Obtainable on the Skeena solely in peak journey months. Contains three meals per day, wine with supper, on-train commentary from the workers, and assured entry to the Panoramic and Park automobiles.[61]
  • Sleeper Plus: Sleeping lodging aboard in a single day trains. This service class was previously generally known as Sleeper in some circumstances, together with on the now-suspended Chaleur. Obtainable on the Canadian, Ocean and Winnipeg-Churchill trains. Choices for this class on the Canadian embody berth sections and single, double and triple bedrooms with bunkbeds and electrical shops. On different trains, not all choices can be found. Additionally included are first-class meals within the eating automobile (not together with alcohol), and entry to the Skyline automobile and viewing salons within the glass-domed Park automobile, when obtainable. Passengers are additionally given precedence boarding and entry to the Panorama Lounges at main city stations.[62][63] Every automobile has entry to a washroom and, optionally, a bathe. Entry to enterprise lounges the place obtainable or the Sleeper Plus Lounge in Halifax is out there on departure day.
  • Status: By way of’s newest premium service providing obtainable on the Canadian solely. Along with the Sleeper Plus facilities, consists of modernized luxurious sleeping lodging on the rear of the practice, precedence reservations within the eating automobile, a concierge, complimentary drinks (together with alcohol), and schedule allowing, a free tour of choose Winnipeg points of interest. Entry to enterprise lounges is offered on each arrival and departure days in Toronto and Vancouver.

On board[edit]


A By way of eating automobile getting ready for the primary serving of breakfast

Smoking is prohibited on all By way of trains. Smoking tobacco has been banned on the Hall routes since 1993[64] and this coverage was steadily prolonged to all trains, whereas smoking hashish was banned on all By way of routes on the identical day it was made authorized in Canada. The final remaining on-board smoking was permitted in a smoker’s lounge on some long-distance routes, solely at sure instances of day till 2002.[65]

Washrooms are offered for every automobile. On sleeper automobiles, each non-public room has its personal separate washroom.

Meals service varies by practice. All trains save the Sudbury–White River practice supply snacks, gentle meals, and each alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks for buy. Lengthy-distance trains supply conventional sit-down eating and full meals to sleeper class passengers. Financial system-class passengers should purchase scorching take-out meals ready within the eating automobile on long-distance trains through the peak season, and eat within the sit-down eating automobile within the off-peak.[66]

Complimentary Wi-Fi service is out there within the Hall. The current Wi-Fi system is offered by 21Internet since November 2008. Beforehand, the Wi-Fi service was offered by Parsons commencing in February 2006. By way of had upgraded the previous Wi-Fi system throughout 2011 with know-how offered by Nomad Digital.[67][68][69] By way of was the primary North American transportation service to supply Wi-Fi to its passengers in early 2006, and was one of many first on this planet to take action. Wi-Fi can also be obtainable to travellers in all lessons of service who could profit from complimentary Wi-Fi service in lots of Quebec Metropolis–Windsor hall stations.

Wi-Fi service has been added to the Ocean practice within the service automobiles, and to the Canadian,[70] though connections are unreliable in most locations exterior city centres.


By way of affords checked baggage on its longer-haul companies; nevertheless, within the Hall solely sure trains have baggage automobiles. In older class automobiles there’s adequate house on the entrance of the automobile for baggage storage. In distinction, the Renaissance inventory has sufficient house (beneath the seat) for just one small piece of carry-on baggage; the rest should be checked.[71]

Accessibility and security considerations[edit]

By way of affords pre-boarding help to these passengers requiring further time to board its trains. Not all stations are equally accessible; some have high-level platforms or mechanical lifts. All By way of trains are able to accommodating wheelchairs, though capability is proscribed.[72]

Routes and connections[edit]

A map of By way of Rail routes, displaying the frequency of By way of trains on it

By way of operates within the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. The one province or territory linked to the continental railway community and never served by By way of is the Northwest Territories. Newfoundland and Labrador, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Yukon don’t have any rail connections to the continental community and thus no By way of service.

By way of operates over 475 trains per week over 19 routes, marketed in 4 broad classes:[73]

  • Ontario and Quebec/Hall service: comprising frequent regional and native trains between main cities in a band from Southwestern Ontario to Quebec Metropolis. The overwhelming majority of By way of’s trains – over 400 per week – function right here. Cities served by Hall trains embody Windsor, Sarnia, London, Toronto, Kingston, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec Metropolis. In 2017, hall service accounted for 95 p.c of By way of’s ridership and 77 p.c of its income.[74]
  • The Maritime Approach/Ocean: offering long-distance service between Quebec and the Maritime provinces. In 2017, the Ocean accounted for two p.c of By way of’s ridership and three p.c of its income.[74]
  • The Nice Western Approach/Canadian: offering each long-distance service between Southern Ontario and Western Canada, in addition to important rail companies by means of Northern Ontario. In 2017, the Canadian accounted for two p.c of By way of’s ridership and 20 p.c of its income.[74]
  • Journey Routes: 5 regional and long-distance routes that supply important rail transportation in rural northern areas. In 2017, these routes in mixture accounted for 1 p.c of By way of’s ridership and income.[74] The routes included on this class are:

Not like Amtrak, which provides each route a particular identify, most By way of trains are recognized solely by their route quantity and vacation spot. The one named By way of trains are the Canadian and the Ocean. The 5 “Journey Routes” had been beforehand branded because the Skeena, the Saguenay, the Abitibi, the Lake Superior, and the Hudson Bay, respectively, and should still be referred to by these names in native utilization.

Monitor possession[edit]

A By way of Rail practice passes by a Canadian Nationwide Railway practice. The vast majority of the observe By way of operates on is owned by CNR.

As of 2017, the mileage make-up of By way of’s route community by observe proprietor/host railway was as follows:[36][note 1]

In whole, about 88 p.c of By way of trackage is owned by a Class I railroad, Eight p.c by a shortline railroad, and 5 p.c by a authorities company.


The Maple Leaf, working between New York Metropolis and Toronto by way of Albany, Buffalo, and Niagara Falls, is collectively managed by By way of and Amtrak. The practice operates utilizing Amtrak gear, however on the Canadian facet of the border is staffed by By way of workers and operated as a typical By way of practice.

Two different practice routes hyperlink Canada and the US: the Adirondack (Montreal-New York) and the Amtrak Cascades (Vancouver-Seattle-Portland). Whereas each of those routes share stations with By way of at their Canadian termini, they’re totally operated by Amtrak and single-ticket connections to By way of trains should not supplied.

Along with Amtrak, By way of passengers can e book connecting tickets on the next companies:[76]

By way of additionally has connection agreements with a number of native and intercity bus operators, car-sharing companies, and airways. Passengers who’re flying with these airways can mix their air and rail journeys underneath the identical report locator:[76]

Rolling inventory[edit]

By way of owns 73 locomotives and 501 passenger automobiles.[77] Examples embody the GMD F40PH-2 diesel locomotive and the famed “Park”-class sleeper-dome-lounge automobiles discovered on the rear of the Canadian and Jasper–Prince Rupert practice.

Carbon emissions[edit]

In 2010, By way of’s carbon dioxide (CO2) equal emissions per passenger kilometre had been 0.117 kg.[78] For comparability, that is just like Amtrak or a automobile with two individuals,[79] about twice as excessive because the UK rail common,[80] about 4 instances the typical US motorcoach,[81] and about eight instances a Finnish electrical intercity practice or totally loaded fifty-seat coach.[82]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • Essentially the most critical By way of accident up to now occurred on Eight February 1986, when a By way of practice collided with a CN freight practice close to Hinton, Alberta, killing 23 individuals and injuring 71.
  • On 20 November 1994, at roughly 18:20 japanese commonplace time, By way of practice No. 66 travelling eastward at roughly 96 mph, struck a bit of rail deliberately positioned on the observe at Mile 242.07 of the CN North America Kingston Subdivision, in Brighton, Ontario. A hearth erupted and the trailing portion of the locomotive and the primary two passenger automobiles behind the locomotive grew to become engulfed in flames. Forty-six of the 385 passengers had been injured, most whereas exiting the practice in life-threatening situations. 2 native residents had been charged and convicted after an investigation by the native police.[83]
  • On Three September 1997, the Canadian (practice No. 2) from Vancouver to Toronto, travelling eastward at 67 mph, derailed at Mile 7.5 of the CN Wainwright Subdivision, close to Biggar, Saskatchewan. 13 of 19 automobiles and the 2 locomotives derailed. Seventy-nine of the 198 passengers and crew on board had been injured, 1 fatally and 13 severely. Roughly 600 toes of important observe was destroyed.[84] The trigger was decided to be an axle bearing failure which was detected however erroneously ignored. By way of was closely criticized for an absence of consideration to security.
  • On 23 April 1999, By way of practice No. 74 travelling eastward at Mile 46.7 on the CN Chatham Subdivision in Thamesville, Ontario derailed after a change was left open by a CN employee inflicting the practice to leap the tracks and collide with stationary hoppers on the adjoining observe, derailing the locomotive and its four-passenger automobiles. The 2 engineers had been killed and 77 of the 186 passengers injured, 4 severely. Roughly 50 m of the primary observe and 100 m of the yard observe had been destroyed.[85]
  • On 12 April 2001, the Ocean sure for Montréal derailed at a operated by hand important observe change in Stewiacke, Nova Scotia. An ordinary CN change lock used to safe the change in right place had been tampered with. The 2 locomotives and the primary two automobiles continued on the primary observe, however the next automobiles took a diverging route onto an industrial observe adjoining to the primary observe. 9 of the automobiles derailed and a farm provide constructing, in addition to the economic observe had been destroyed. 4 occupants of the constructing escaped with out harm previous to impression. There have been 132 individuals on board the practice. 22 individuals had been transported to hospital in both Truro or Halifax. 9 had been severely injured.[86] A 15-year-old boy pleaded responsible to the cost of mischief endangering life referring to the lock tampering.[87]
  • On 26 February 2012, By way of Practice No. 92 en path to Toronto, derailed in Burlington, Ontario, killing all three railroad engineers and injuring 46 (three severely). The reason for the derailment is attributed to the extreme pace of the practice travelling by means of a change from observe 2 to trace 3.
  • 2013 By way of Rail Canada terrorism plot: In April 2013, two males impressed by al-Qaeda had been charged with plotting to derail a By way of practice within the Better Toronto Space.[88] In 2015, each males had been convicted of terrorism-related offenses and sentenced to life imprisonment.[89] One of many two males was mentally unstable and misdiagnosed with schizophrenia.[90][91]
  • On 18 September 2013, a collision occurred between practice No. 51 and a double-decker OC Transpo bus that didn’t cease at a degree crossing in Ottawa, Ontario. Six individuals had been killed and 31 injured (11 critically), all of whom had been on the bus. The impression resulted within the practice derailing roughly 100–200 toes (30–61 m) down the observe.[92]
  • On 5 July 2018, a practice with 16 passengers and 5 crew members derailed north of Hudson Bay, SK whereas travelling from Winnipeg to Churchill. Passengers and crew sustained solely minor accidents, nevertheless it took a number of hours for emergency crews to reach because of the distant location of the incident. Paramedics and firefighters needed to wait close to the tracks for CN rail vans to reach that might transport them to the crash website.[93][94]
  • On 31 December 2019, a practice with 5 crew and 7 passengers derailed and tipped on its facet close to Katrime, Manitoba; the incident remains to be underneath investigation, and nobody was severely injured.[95]

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ Since the newest company plan was printed, the Guelph Subdivision, utilized by By way of between Kitchener and London, has reverted to CN from the Goderich-Exeter Railway.[75]


  1. ^ a b “Annual Report 2018” (PDF). By way of Rail Canada. Retrieved Might 13, 2019.
  2. ^ Sustainable Mobility Report 2018 (PDF) (Report). By way of Rail Canada. p. 5.
  3. ^ a b Nelligan, Tom (1982). By way of Rail Canada: The primary 5 years. PJT Publishing. ISBN 0-937658-08-1.
  4. ^ Jason Fekete (February 29, 2016). “By way of Rail looking for federal price range funding for $1.3B passenger automobile improve in Toronto-Montreal hall”. Nationwide Submit. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  5. ^ “Transport 2000 Hotline”. January 30, 2004. Archived from the unique on April 20, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  6. ^ “By way of upgrades to value $700 million”. Archived from the unique on June 5, 2004.
  7. ^ “By way of will get a whole lot of tens of millions in federal funding”. CBC. October 11, 2007. Archived from the unique on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
  8. ^ “Backgrounder: New Funding For By way of Rail Canada” (PDF). By way of Rail. October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
  9. ^ Beeby, Dean (October 20, 2007). “By way of practice late? You are not alone”. Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
  10. ^ “Canada’s Financial Motion Plan”. Division of Finance of Canada. January 27, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
  11. ^ “Replace: Strike Motion—By way of Rail Canada cancels all companies efficient instantly”. By way of Rail Canada Inc. Archived from the unique on July 25, 2009.
  12. ^ “By way of Rail, CAW attain tentative settlement to keep away from strike”. Progressive Railroading. June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
  13. ^ “By way of Rail continues its modernization and takes motion to raised meet buyer demand” (Press launch). By way of Rail. June 27, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
  14. ^ “By way of practice service to Sarnia reduce in half”. Archived from the unique on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  15. ^ “Niagara travellers impacted by By way of cuts”. Archived from the unique on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  16. ^ “By way of Rail blames low ridership for cuts to Kitchener service”. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  17. ^ “London space hit exhausting by nationwide By way of Rail cuts”. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  18. ^ “By way of Rail cuts means fewer trains to, from Windsor”. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  19. ^ “By way of Rail service between Matapédia, New Carlisle and Gaspé suspended”. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
  20. ^ Chow, Olivia. “Invoice C-577 By way of Rail Canada Act: An Act respecting By way of Rail Canada and making consequential amendments to a different Act”.
  21. ^ a b De Souza, Mike; Robinson, Megan (March 11, 2020). “Does By way of Rail’s survival depend upon a brand new route by means of Ontario and Quebec?”. World Information. Retrieved Might 3, 2020.
  22. ^ “By way of Rail’s $150 passes for limitless journey offered out”. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  23. ^ a b “Winter’s excessive climate made trains extraordinarily late, By way of Rail experiences”. The Globe and Mail.
  24. ^ a b “2018 Annual Public Assembly Questions and Solutions — Half 1” (PDF). By way of Rail Canada.
  25. ^ a b c d “Opinion: Passenger-train service falling off the rails”. Vancouver Solar. August 29, 2016.
  26. ^ a b “By way of practice chronically late: Rail advocates”. October 22, 2018.
  27. ^ a b “What’s holding up By way of’s Canadian? (Up to date)”. Railway Age. Might 30, 2018.
  28. ^ Small, Kaylen (Might 24, 2018). “Ache on the practice: By way of Rail passengers annoyed with delays on cross-Canada journey”. CBC Information.
  29. ^ “Journey credit”.
  30. ^ “New By way of sked to maintain ‘Canadian’ on time in Jasper – Jasper’s supply for information, sports activities, arts, tradition, and extra”. The Fitzhugh.
  31. ^ “Did By way of Rail preserve its promise? Let’s ask”. Using the buses. December 6, 2018.
  32. ^ “Pretty journey – Evaluate of By way of Rail Canada, Quebec, Canada”. TripAdvisor.
  33. ^ “By way of Rail Selects Siemens Canada to Exchange its Quebec-Windsor Hall Fleet”. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  34. ^ “By way of Rail locations 989 million practice order with Siemens”. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  35. ^ Taylor, Roger (November 9, 2015). “By way of appears at increasing Atlantic service”. Chronicle Herald. Herald Restricted. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  36. ^ a b c d “Abstract of the 2017 – 2021 Company Plan and 2017 Working and Capital Budgets” (PDF). By way of Rail Canada. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  37. ^ Campbell, Francis (December 8, 2018). “Commuter rail ‘removed from useless’ in Halifax”. The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  38. ^ Woodford, Zane (June 18, 2019). “Halifax council kills commuter rail proposal”. Toronto Star. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  39. ^ Peddle, Stuart (June 19, 2019). “Halifax commuter rail not coming, however councillor nonetheless holding out hope”. The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  40. ^ “Proposal for Excessive Frequency Rail within the Québec Metropolis – Toronto Hall”. By way of Rail. Retrieved Might 5, 2020.
  41. ^ “Federal price range approves new fleet of trains for By way of Rail, however devoted tracks nonetheless underneath examine”. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  42. ^ “By way of excessive Frequency Rail (HFR) Mission not a part of 2019 Federal Funds, however Continues to be Evaluated – Transport Motion Ontario”.
  43. ^ “Excessive Frequency Rail: AECOM and Arup consortium chosen as Proprietor’s Engineers” (Press launch). Montreal, Quebec, Canada: By way of Rail Canada, Inc. January 28, 2020. Retrieved Might 5, 2020.
  44. ^ “Quebec funds Gaspé railway revival”. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  45. ^ Inc, By way of Rail Canada. “By way of Rail service between Churchill and Gillam suspended indefinitely attributable to closure of the railway infrastructure in northern Manitoba”.
  46. ^ a b “Ship brings propane to Churchill, will depart with stranded By way of Rail practice”. CTV Information.
  47. ^ a b We’re free:’ Churchill celebrates return of practice service with prime minister”. Edmonton Journal. November 1, 2018.
  48. ^ “Newsroom – Arctic Gateway Group”.
  49. ^ Canada, Western Financial Diversification (September 14, 2018). “Authorities of Canada pronounces assist for acquisition and restore of Churchill rail line by Arctic Gateway Group”. gcnws.
  50. ^ It’s totally thrilling’: First rail vacationers in 560 days depart for Churchill, Man”. CBC Information. December 2, 2018.
  51. ^ “Churchill reconnected”.
  52. ^ Tasker, John Paul (February 13, 2020). “By way of Rail cancels most trains nationwide, CN closes Jap Canadian community as Indigenous protests proceed”. Canadian Broadcasting Company. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  53. ^ Shah, Maryam (February 13, 2020). “By way of Rail cancels most trains throughout the nation as CN shuts down rails in japanese Canada”. World Information. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  54. ^ Slaughter, Graham (February 13, 2020). “By way of Rail cancels trains throughout Canada, CN shuts down Jap Canada community amid pipeline protests”. CTV Information. Retrieved Might 15, 2020.
  55. ^ “COVID-19: By way of Rail continues suspension of all Toronto-Vancouver passenger trains till Might 1”. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  56. ^ Group, Travelweek (March 23, 2020). “By way of Rail pronounces service adjustments in response to COVID-19 – Travelweek”. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  57. ^ “Stops in between two stations”. By way of Rail.
  58. ^ “Seat Task”. February 11, 2014.
  59. ^ “Practice routes by area”. By way of Rail. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  60. ^ By way of Rail. “Useful hyperlinks for the enterprise traveller”. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
  61. ^ “Lessons aboard the Jasper-Prince Rupert practice”. By way of Rail. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  62. ^ “Lessons aboard the Montréal-Halifax practice (the Ocean)”. By way of Rail. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  63. ^ “Lessons aboard the Toronto-Vancouver practice (the Canadian)”. By way of Rail. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  64. ^ “Smoking to be banned on By way of practice”. The Gazette. Montreal, QC. April 15, 1993. pp. A3.
  65. ^ DeMont, John (August 2002). “All Aboard!”. Maclean’s. 115 (34): 16.
  66. ^ By way of Rail. “Onboard menus for all trains”. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  67. ^ “On-Practice Leisure”. By way of Rail. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  68. ^ “As of November 2008, the Web Wi-Fi companies on By way of Rail Canada trains working between Windsor, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec Metropolis are operated by 21Internet”. Archived from the unique on June 13, 2010..
  69. ^ “NOMAD awarded contract by By way of Rail and Authorities of Canada”. Nomad Digital Ltd. December 13, 2010. Archived from the unique on July 17, 2011.
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  71. ^ “Baggage Coverage” (PDF). By way of Rail Canada. June 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  72. ^ By way of Rail. “Particular wants”. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  73. ^ “Discover Our Practice Journeys”. By way of Rail Canada. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  74. ^ a b c d “By way of Rail Annual Report 2017” (PDF). By way of Rail Canada. p. 2.
  75. ^ Host, Stephen C. (November 20, 2018). “GEXR leased section reverts to CN”. Railway Age. New York. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  76. ^ a b “Our companions”. February 15, 2018.
  77. ^ “Practice fleet – Rolling inventory | By way of Rail”. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  78. ^ E mail from Bruno Riendeau, Senior Advisor, Setting, to Alaric Corridor, October 20, 2011. Cf. Archived January 12, 2016, on the Wayback Machine, sheet 8, cell C36 (figures from 2002) and Archived Might 17, 2013, on the Wayback Machine.
  79. ^ respectively Archived January 12, 2016, on the Wayback Machine, sheet 8, cell C33, figures from 2002; “Up to date Comparability of Vitality Use & CO2 Emissions From Completely different Transportation Modes” (PDF). Archived from the unique (PDF) on Might 15, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2012. desk 1.1, figures from 2007
  80. ^ “Wayback Machine” (PDF). March 24, 2009. Archived from the unique (PDF) on March 24, 2009.
  81. ^ figures from 2007.
  82. ^ Respectively, figures for 2007;, figures for 2010.
  83. ^ “Railway Investigation Report R94T0357”. Transportation Security Board of Canada.
  84. ^ “Railway Investigation Report R97H0009”. Transportation Security Board of Canada.
  85. ^ Canada, Authorities of Canada, Transportation Security Board of. “Railway Investigation Report R99H0007”.
  86. ^ “Railway Investigation Report R01M0024”. Transportation Security Board of Canada.
  87. ^ “Teen faces victims of N.S. practice wreck”. CBC. CBC Information.
  88. ^ Blackwell, Tom (April 22, 2013). “Canadian terrorist plot to assault By way of practice thwarted, two arrested: RCMP”. Nationwide Submit.
  89. ^ Diana Mehta, Males convicted in By way of terror plot handed life sentences, Canadian Press (September 23, 2016).
  90. ^ Richard Warnica, Authorized battle over convicted terrorist Chiheb Esseghaier’s sanity set as attorneys appointed for enchantment, Nationwide Submit (January 13, 2016).
  91. ^ Richard Warnica, Would-be terrorist Chiheb Esseghaier is clearly insane, however ought to that even matter in courtroom?, Nationwide Submit (August 28, 2015).
  92. ^ Commisso, Christina; Puzic, Sonja (September 18, 2013). “By way of practice and metropolis bus crash in Ottawa, a minimum of six useless, 30 injured”. CTV Information. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  93. ^ Canada, Transportation Security Board of (July 11, 2018). “Rail transportation security investigation R18W0168 – Transportation Security Board”. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  94. ^ “Railway incident presents emergency responders with distinctive problem”. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  95. ^ “Manitoba RCMP reply to passenger practice derailment close to Portage La Prairie”. CJOB. Retrieved February 5, 2020.

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