Flag-carrier and largest airline of Canada

Air Canada is the flag service and the biggest airline of Canada by fleet dimension and passengers carried. It’s headquartered within the metropolis of Montreal, Quebec. The airline, based in 1937, gives scheduled and constitution air transport for passengers and cargo to 207 locations worldwide. It’s a founding member of the Star Alliance.[8] Air Canada’s largest hubs are at Toronto Pearson Worldwide Airport (YYZ), Montréal–Trudeau Worldwide Airport (YUL) and Vancouver Worldwide Airport (YVR).[9] The airline’s regional service is Air Canada Specific.

Canada’s nationwide airline originated from the Canadian federal authorities’s 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Air Traces (TCA), which started working its first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following authorities approval. After the deregulation of the Canadian airline market within the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On Four January 2000, Air Canada acquired its largest rival, Canadian Airways. In 2003, the airline filed for chapter safety and within the following 12 months emerged and reorganized underneath the holding firm ACE Aviation Holdings Inc. In 2017, Air Canada flew 48 million passengers, because the airline celebrated its 80th anniversary.[10]

Air Canada has a fleet of Airbus A330, Boeing 777, and Boeing 787 Dreamliner wide-body plane on long-haul routes and makes use of the Airbus A320 household plane (together with the A319, A320, and A321 variants), Boeing 737 MAX 8, and Airbus A220-300 plane on short-haul routes. The service’s working divisions embrace Air Canada Cargo, Air Canada Specific, Air Canada Jetz (personal jet charters), and Air Canada Rouge (leisure airline). Its subsidiary, Air Canada Holidays, gives trip packages to over 90 locations. Along with its regional companions, the airline operates on common greater than 1,613 scheduled flights every day.[11]

Historical past[edit]

Trans-Canada Air Traces (1937–1965)[edit]

Air Canada’s predecessor, Trans-Canada Air Traces (TCA), was created by federal laws as a subsidiary of Canadian Nationwide Railway (CNR) on 11 April 1937.[1][2] The newly created Division of Transport underneath Minister C. D. Howe desired an airline underneath authorities management to hyperlink cities on the Atlantic coast to these on the Pacific coast. Utilizing $5 million in Crown seed cash, two Lockheed Mannequin 10 Electras and one Boeing Stearman biplane had been bought from Canadian Airways[12] and skilled airline executives from United Airways and American Airways had been introduced in.[1]

Passenger flights started on 1 September 1937, with an Electra carrying two passengers and mail from Vancouver to Seattle, a $14.20 spherical journey,[1] and, on 1 July 1938, TCA employed its first flight attendants.[13] Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver started on 1 April 1939, utilizing 12 Lockheed Mannequin 14 Tremendous Electras and 6 Lockheed Mannequin 18 Lodestars.[12] By January 1940, the airline had grown to about 579 staff.[13]

Canadian Pacific Airways (CP Air) recommended in 1942 a merger with TCA. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and launched laws regulating TCA as the one airline in Canada allowed to supply transcontinental flights. With the rise in air journey after World Struggle II, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight and some worldwide routes.[1]

Initially headquartered in Winnipeg, which was additionally the positioning of the nationwide upkeep base, the federal authorities moved TCA’s headquarters to Montreal in 1949; the upkeep base later additionally moved east. With the event of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA turned the primary airline on the planet to make use of a pc reservation system with distant terminals.[14][15]

Renamed to Air Canada and early years (1965–1990)[edit]

Income Passenger-Kilometres, scheduled flights solely, in thousands and thousands
Yr Site visitors
1950 727
1955 1551
1960 3284
1965 5702
1969 9074
1971 10343
1975 16270
1980 23752
1985 21718
2000 448006

Supply: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1950–55, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960–2000

By 1964, TCA had grown to change into Canada’s nationwide airline and, in 1964, Jean Chrétien submitted a personal member’s invoice to alter the title of the airline from Trans-Canada Airways to Air Canada, which TCA had lengthy used as its French-language title. This invoice failed however it was later resubmitted and handed, with the title change taking impact on 1 January 1965.[12]Elizabeth II, the reigning Queen of Canada, flew on the primary plane to bear the title and livery of Air Canada when she departed for the UK on the finish of her 1964 tour of Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Ontario in 1964.[16]

Throughout the 1970s authorities laws ensured Air Canada’s dominance over home regional carriers and rival CP Air.[17] Quick-haul carriers had been every restricted to one in every of 5 areas, and couldn’t compete straight with Air Canada and CP Air.[17] CP Air was topic to capability limits on intercontinental flights, and restricted from home operations. Air Canada’s fares had been additionally topic to regulation by the federal government.[17]

In 1976, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada turned an impartial Crown company. The Air Canada Act of 1978 ensured that the service would compete on a extra equal footing with rival regional airways and CP Air, and ended the federal government’s direct regulatory management over Air Canada’s routings, fares, and companies.[17] The act additionally transferred possession from Canadian Nationwide Railway to a subsidiary of the nationwide authorities.[1] Deregulation of the Canadian airline market, underneath the brand new Nationwide Transportation Act, 1987 formally opened the airline market in Canada to equal competitors.[18] The service’s fleet enlargement noticed the acquisition of Boeing 727, Boeing 747, and Lockheed Tristar jetliners.[15] In 1978 Judy Cameron turned the primary feminine pilot employed to fly for any main Canadian service when she was employed to fly by Air Canada.[19]

With new fleet expenditures outpacing earnings, Air Canada officers indicated that the service would want further sources of capital to fund its modernization.[17] By 1985 the Canadian authorities was indicating a willingness to denationalise each Canadian Nationwide Railways and Air Canada.[17] In 1988 Air Canada was privatized, and 43% of shares had been bought on the general public market,[12] with the preliminary public providing accomplished in October of that 12 months.[17] By this time, long-haul rival CP Air had change into Canadian Airways Worldwide following its acquisition by Pacific Western Airways.[15]

On 7 December 1987, Air Canada turned the primary airline on the planet with a fleet-wide non-smoking coverage,[20] and in 1989 turned utterly privatized.[12] The profitable privatization program was led by the President and CEO, Pierre J Jeanniot. The related in depth communication actions had been aided by the Non-Govt Chairman, Claude I. Taylor.

Strategic modifications (1990s)[edit]

Within the early 1990s, Air Canada encountered monetary difficulties because the airline trade slumped within the aftermath of the Persian Gulf Struggle.[15] In response, the airline restructured administration by hiring former Delta Air Traces govt Hollis L. Harris as its CEO. Harris restructured the airline’s operations, decreased administration positions, moved the company headquarters to Dorval Airport,[15] and bought the enRoute card enterprise to Diners Membership in 1992.[21] By 1994, Air Canada had returned to profitability.[15] The identical 12 months additionally noticed the service profitable route entry to fly from Canada to the brand new Kansai Airport in Osaka, Japan.[15]

In 1995, benefiting from a brand new US-Canada open skies settlement, Air Canada added 30 new trans-border routes.[15] In Might 1997, Air Canada turned a founding member of the Star Alliance, with the airline launching codeshares with a number of of the alliance’s members. The second half of the 1990s noticed the airline earn constant income, totalling $1 billion for the 1997 to 1999 interval.[15]

On 2 September 1998, pilots for Air Canada launched the corporate’s first pilots’ strike,[22] demanding larger wages.[17] On the finish of 1999, the Canadian authorities relaxed among the aviation laws, aimed toward making a consolidation of the Canadian airline trade. That 12 months, American Airways at the side of Canadian monetary firm Onex Corp, launched takeover bids for ailing rival Canadian Airways and Air Canada, spurring Air Canada to submit a competing provide for its largest rival.[15]

Merger and reorganization (2000s)[edit]

In January 2001, Air Canada acquired Canada’s second-largest air service, Canadian Airways, merging the latter’s operations, changing into the world’s twelfth-largest airline within the first decade of the 21st century.[12] As Air Canada gained entry to its former rival’s monetary statements, officers discovered that the service was in worse monetary form than was beforehand believed.[17] An expedited merger technique was pursued, however in summer time 2000 integration efforts led to flight delays, baggage issues and different frustrations.[17] Nevertheless, service improved following Air Canada officers’ pledge to take action by January 2001.[17] The airline was confronted by the worldwide aviation market downturn and elevated competitors, posting back-to-back losses in 2001 and 2002.[17]

Chapter and restructuring[edit]

As Air Canada had employed a scorched earth coverage to forestall the Onex proposed acquisition as one in every of its strains of protection, it had burdened itself with onerous contracts with nearly all of its suppliers. Because of this, on 1 April 2003, Air Canada filed for cover underneath the Firms’ Collectors Association Act; it emerged from this safety on 30 September 2004, 18 months later. Throughout the interval of chapter safety, the corporate was topic to 2 competing bids from Cerberus Capital Administration and Victor Li. The Cerberus bid would have seen former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney put in as chairman, being recruited by Cerberus’ worldwide advisory board chair Dan Quayle, the previous Vice-President of america. Cerberus was rejected as a result of it had a fame of adjusting current worker pension agreements, a transfer strongly opposed by the CAW. At first, Air Canada chosen Victor Li’s Trinity Time Investments, which initially requested for a board veto and the chairmanship in return for investing $650 million within the airline. Li, who holds twin citizenship from Canada and Hong Kong, later demanded modifications to the pension plan (which was not in his authentic takeover bid), however for the reason that unions refused to budge, the bid was withdrawn.[23]

Lastly, Deutsche Financial institution unveiled an $850 million financing bundle for Air Canada, if it will minimize $200 million in annual prices along with the $1.1 billion that the unions agreed on in 2003. It was accepted after last-minute talks between CEO Robert Milton and CAW president Buzz Hargrove acquired the union concessions wanted to let the bid undergo.[12][24][25]

ACE Aviation Holdings turned the brand new mother or father firm underneath which the reorganized Air Canada was held.[26] Nevertheless, in November 2012 ACE bought all shares and warrants it held in Air Canada.

In October 2004, Canadian singer Celine Dion turned the face of Air Canada, hoping to relaunch the airline and attract a extra worldwide market after 18 months of chapter safety.[27] She recorded her single, You and I, which subsequently appeared in a number of Air Canada commercials.[28]

Fleet modernization[edit]

On 31 October 2004, the final Air Canada Boeing 747 flight landed in Toronto from Frankfurt as AC873, ending 33 years of 747 service with the airline. The Boeing 747-400 fleet was changed by the Airbus A340 fleet.[29] On 19 October 2004, Air Canada unveiled a brand new plane color scheme and uniforms. A Boeing 767-300ER was painted within the new silver-blue color, and the darkish inexperienced/nearly black tail was changed with a brand new model of the maple leaf referred to as the ‘Frosted Leaf’.[27]

On 9 November 2005, Air Canada agreed to resume its widebody fleet by buying 16 Boeing 777s (10 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs), and 14 Boeing 787-8s. It positioned choices on 18 Boeing 777s and 46 Boeing 787-8s and -9s.[30] Deliveries of the 777s started in March 2007 and deliveries of the 787s started in Might 2014.[31]

On 24 April 2007, Air Canada exercised half of its choices for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The agency order for the Dreamliners then stood at 37 plus 23 choices, for a complete of 60. The airline additionally cancelled orders for 2 Boeing 777Fs. In November 2007, Air Canada leased an extra Boeing 777-300ER.[32][33]

Mission XM[edit]

Began in July 2006 and since accomplished, Mission XM: Excessive Makeover, was a $300 million plane inside alternative mission to put in new cabins on all plane. New plane such because the Boeing 777 had been delivered with the brand new cabins manufacturing facility put in.[34]

Private video on demand unit in economic system class, 2008. The non-public VOD models had been put in all through the airline’s planes within the mid-2000s as part of “Mission XM”.

New cabin options included:[35][36][37][38][39]

  • In Govt First, new horizontal totally flat Govt First Suites (on Boeing 767s, Boeing 777s, and Airbus A330s).
  • New cabins in all lessons on all plane, with new leisure choices.
  • Private AVOD (8.9 in or 230 mm touchscreen LCD) in Financial system class (home and worldwide) and Govt Class (home).
  • Bigger AVOD (12 in or 300 mm touchscreen LCD) outfitted with noise-cancelling Sennheiser headphones accessible in Govt First Suites.
  • Interactive video games in any respect seats in Govt and Financial system; XM Radio Canada accessible at each seat.
  • USB ports to recharge digital gadgets and for recreation controllers in any respect seats; 120 VAC plugs in most seats; In Financial system (2 per triple) (1 per double) (Three per quad). In First Class/Govt (All seats)

Late 2000s monetary difficulties[edit]

Within the late 2000s, Air Canada has been going through a variety of monetary difficulties, together with challenges as a result of international recession, resulting in hypothesis that it may file for chapter, lower than a decade after it exited chapter on 30 September 2004.[40]

President and CEO Montie Brewer was changed by Calin Rovinescu efficient 1 April 2009.[41] Rovinescu turned the primary Canadian President since Claude Taylor in 1992. Rovinescu was Air Canada’s chief restructuring officer throughout its 2003 chapter (he resigned that 12 months after unions rejected his calls for) and is reported to be “an enforcer”.[42]

Federal finance minister Jim Flaherty appointed retired choose James Farley, who had presided over Air Canada’s 2003 chapter, to mediate pension points between the corporate, the unions representing its staff, and retirees. The contracts with 4 of the unions additionally expired round this time. The airline said that its $2.85 billion pension shortfall (which grew from $1.2 billion in 2007) was a “liquidity threat” in its first-quarter report, and it required new financing and pension “reduction” to preserve money for 2010 operations. The corporate was obligated to pay $650 million into the pension fund however it suffered a 2009 Q1 lack of $400 million, so it requested a moratorium on its pension funds in 2009. The unions had insisted on monetary ensures earlier than agreeing on a deal.

In July 2009, Air Canada requested and obtained monetary support from the Canadian authorities together with different loans. “However nearly each greenback of the loans comes from the Canadian authorities and from the corporate’s proprietor, ACE and affiliate firm, Aeroplan. Regardless of its distinguished billing within the story, GE Canada Finance Holding Firm is a minor participant. After which there are numerous quantities from sale and leaseback and aggregating an array of biscuit-tin financial savings which assist to realize the magic headline determine of CAD1 billion. The fundamental mortgage is for CAD600 million – almost half of it from the Canadian authorities.”[45] Air Canada says it misplaced $1.05 billion in its first quarter in contrast with a revenue of $345 million in the identical quarter final 12 months as governments imposed journey restrictions world wide as a result of COVID-19 pandemic.[46]


In December 2010, ACE bought 44 million of Air Canada shares,[47] adopted by the remaining 31 million shares in November 2012 to Cormark Securities Inc.[48]

In November 2014, Air Canada pilots voted by a majority of 84% in favour of a 10-year contract that enables the nation’s largest passenger service to make use of arbitration or mediation to resolve disputes.[49] A 12 months later, the flight attendants additionally accepted a 10-year settlement, apparently by a slender (unspoken) margin, with wage will increase, elevated job safety and enhancements to working circumstances, based on Michel Cournoyer, the pinnacle of CUPE’s Air Canada unit.[50]

New branding and fleet[edit]

On 9 February 2017, a brand new retro purple and black plane livery was launched, to coincide with Air Canada’s 80th anniversary and Canada’s 150th anniversary of Confederation. The replace contains design points from the emblem used between 1964 and 1992, with an general white color scheme, with a black underside, tail fin with purple maple leaf rondelle, black “Air Canada” lettering with a purple maple leaf rondelle beneath, and a black “masks” surrounding the cockpit home windows.[51] In December 2013, Air Canada ordered 61 Boeing 737 MAX single-aisle slender physique plane to exchange its current fleet of Airbus A320 sequence plane with the primary MAX Eight variant delivered on 2 November 2017.[52][53] Some Airbus Airbus A319s can be transferred to Air Canada’s Rouge subsidiary, with the remaining fleet retired. As a part of the deal, Boeing bought 25 Embraer E190s from Air Canada that had been retired in 2016. The identical 12 months, Air Canada signed an settlement with Bombardier Aerospace to exchange the E190s with Airbus A220/CSeries plane from 2019.[54]

In July 2017, Air Canada reintroduced Premium Financial system on its North American wide-body flights.[55]

In April 2018, Air Canada rebranded its worldwide enterprise class cabin as Air Canada Signature Class.[56] Passengers may anticipate an enhanced menu, together with the brand new Air Canada Signature Cocktail, as well as new amenity kits, a chauffeur service (utilizing BMW autos) at its hubs throughout home to worldwide connections, and entry to the Air Canada Signature Suite at Toronto Pearson Worldwide Airport. On choose North American routes, Air Canada Signature Service is obtainable on widebody plane.

In Might 2018, Air Canada listed Taiwan as a part of China to adjust to a requirement of China’s civil aviation administration.[57] On 6 June 2018, Air Canada and Air China signed a three way partnership, the primary three way partnership between a North American and Chinese language airline.[58]

Acquisition of Transat A.T.[edit]

On 16 Might 2019, Air Canada introduced it’s in unique talks to purchase Transat A.T., the mother or father firm that owns Air Transat, for 520 million Canadian {dollars}. On 27 June 2019, Transat A.T. agreed to be bought by Air Canada for $13 CAD per share. The deal continues to be topic to shareholder and regulatory approval. On 11 August 2019, Air Canada raised the acquisition value of Transat A.T. to $18 Canadian {dollars} per share. The general worth of the deal was now 720 million {dollars}. On 23 August 2019, 95% of Transat A.T. shareholders accepted the acquisition by Air Canada on that foundation. The plan was “anticipated to face intense scrutiny from the Competitors Bureau and different regulatory authorities, together with in Europe”, based on CBC Information.[59] The settlement was once more revised in October, 2020 right down to $5 CAD per share reflecting the challenges going through the airline trade as a result of ongoing COVID-19 international pandemic.

Company affairs[edit]


Air Canada turned totally privatized in 1989,[60] and its variable voting shares are traded on the Toronto Inventory Trade (TSX:AC), and, since 29 July 2016, on OTCQX Worldwide Premier within the US underneath the only ticker image “ACDVF”.[61]

Presently, the Air Canada Public Participation Act (ACPPA) limits possession of Air Canada’s voting pursuits by non-residents of Canada to a most of 25%. The Canada Transportation Act (CTA) additionally requires that Canadians personal and management no less than 75% of the voting pursuits of licensed Canadian carriers. Accordingly, Air Canada’s articles comprise restrictions to make sure that it stays “Canadian” as outlined underneath the CTA.[11]


Previous to 1976, Air Canada was a division of the Canadian Nationwide Railway (CNR), helmed by a division head who reported to the President of CNR. Since 1976, the next have been CEO and President:[17]

Enterprise traits[edit]

Air Canada had been loss-making for a number of years, however has now been worthwhile since 2012.[63] The important thing traits for the Air Canada group, together with Air Canada Specific and Air Canada rouge, are (years ending 31 December):

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Turnover (C$m) 11,082 9,739 10,786 11,612 12,114 12,382 13,272 13,868 14,677 16,252 18,065 19,161
Web Earnings/Losses after tax (C$m) −1,025 −24 −24 −249 131 10 105 308 876 2,038 167 1,476
Variety of staff (common FTE) 24,200 22,900 23,200 23,700 24,000 24,500 24,400 24,900 26,100 27,800 29,900 32,900
Variety of passengers (m) 33+ 30+ 32+ 33.9 34.9 35.8 38.5 41.1 44.8 48.1 50.9 51.5
Passenger load issue (%) 81.4 80.7 81.7 81.6 82.7 82.8 83.4 83.5 82.5 82.3 83.3 83.4
Variety of plane (at 12 months finish) 333 332 328 331 351 352 364 370 381 395 400 403
Notes/sources [64] [65] [65][66] [66] [63] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73]


The Centre Air Canada at Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau Worldwide Airport serves because the airline’s headquarters

By federal regulation (Air Canada Public Participation Act), Air Canada has been obligated to maintain its head workplace in Montreal.[74][75] Its company headquarters is Air Canada Centre[76] (French: Centre Air Canada[77]), also referred to as La Rondelle (“The Puck” in French),[78] a 7-storey constructing positioned on the grounds of Montréal–Trudeau Worldwide Airport in Saint-Laurent.[79]

In 1975, Air Canada was headquartered at 1 Place Ville-Marie in Montreal.[80]
In 1990, the airline moved its headquarters to the airport to chop prices.[81]


Air Canada Cargo[edit]

Air Canada Cargo is the corporate’s freight carrying division primarily based at Toronto-Pearson, providing greater than 150 transport locations by the Air Canada airline community, floor logistics and airline companions.[82] Its route community has centered on European locations by Jap Canada departure factors, together with direct companies from Vancouver and Calgary to Frankfurt, London, Paris, and Zurich.[82]

In Toronto, a brand new cargo terminal was accomplished in early 2002 which featured modernised stock and conveyor techniques.[83] Cargo terminals are additionally present in Vancouver and Montreal.

Air Canada Specific[edit]

Air Canada Specific is the model title of Air Canada’s regional feeder service operated by a number of impartial carriers together with Jazz Aviation, Sky Regional Airways, and Exploits Valley Air Companies (EVAS).[84][85]

Air Canada Jetz[edit]

Launched in 2002, Air Canada Jetz is a constitution service concentrating on sports activities groups, skilled entertainers, and companies. The Air Canada Jetz fleet consists of three Airbus A319s in an all enterprise class configuration.[86] In February 2014, Air Canada determined to depart the sports activities constitution enterprise.[87] Nevertheless, on 17 March 2015, Air Canada introduced an settlement with a number of NHL groups to supply constitution companies underneath the Air Canada Jetz model for six years ranging from the 2015–2016 NHL season.[88]

Air Canada Rouge[edit]

Launched in December 2012, Air Canada Rouge is a low-cost subsidiary of Air Canada. Air Canada Rouge serves predominantly leisure locations in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, South America, Central America, Mexico and america[89] utilizing Airbus A319, Airbus A320, Airbus A321, and Boeing 767-300ER plane.[90]

Air Canada Holidays[edit]

Air Canada Holidays is Air Canada’s tour operator. All packages embrace lodging, Aeroplan Miles and roundtrip airfare aboard Air Canada and/or its Star Alliance companions.

Air Canada Holidays gives Govt Class service on choose flights, nonstop flights from main Canadian cities and every day flights to many locations.[91][92]


Aeroplan is Air Canada’s loyalty advertising and marketing program operated by Groupe Aeroplan Inc., which was spun off from Air Canada in 2005.[93] Nevertheless, as of 26 November 2018, Air Canada has signed a definitive settlement to re-purchase Aeroplan from Aimia Inc.[94] Air Canada accomplished the acquisition in January 2019.[95]

Former subsidiaries[edit]

Air Canada Jazz[edit]

Air Canada Jazz was a former subsidiary that operated as a regional airline. The subsidiary was spun off in 2006, though continued to make use of the Air Canada model till 2011

In 2001, Air Canada consolidated its wholly owned regional carriers Air BC, Air Nova, Air Ontario, and Canadian Regional Airways into Air Canada Regional Included. A number of of those air carriers had beforehand operated as an “Air Canada Connector”. In 2002, the consolidation was accomplished with the creation of a brand new model, Air Canada Jazz. Air Canada Jazz was spun off in November 2006. ACE Aviation Holdings is not a shareholder of Jazz Aviation LP, making it an impartial firm. Air Canada Jazz was the model title of Air Canada’s foremost regional product from 2002 to 2011. As of June 2011, the Air Canada Jazz model is not being marketed as all regional operators adopted the Air Canada Specific title. Jazz Aviation is the biggest of those associates, working 125 plane on behalf of Air Canada.[96]

Air Canada Tango[edit]

On 1 November 2001, Air Canada launched Air Canada Tango, designed to supply no-frills service and decrease fares utilizing a devoted fleet of 13 Airbus A320s in an all economic system configuration of 159 seats. In Canada, it operated from Toronto to Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Thunder Bay, Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax, Gander and St. John’s. As well as, it operated continuous service between Toronto and Fort Lauderdale, Orlando and Tampa; in addition to continuous service between Montreal and Fort Lauderdale and Orlando.[97] Tango was meant to compete with Canada 3000.[98] The Tango service was dissolved in 2004. Air Canada now calls its lowest fare class “Tango”.[99] As of 2018, Air Canada has renamed the Tango fare class to Normal fare.[100]


In 2002, Air Canada launched a reduction airline to compete straight with WestJet on routes in Western Canada. Zip operated ex-Canadian Airways Worldwide 737-200s as a separate airline with its personal employees and brightly painted plane. It was disbanded in 2004.[101]


Air Canada flies to 64 home locations and 158 worldwide locations throughout Asia, Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Oceania. Together with its regional companions, the service serves over 222 locations in 47 nations, on six continents worldwide.[5]

Air Canada had flown a variety of fifth freedom routes (passenger and cargo rights between two non-Canadian locations).[15] Previous fifth freedom routes have included: Honolulu-Sydney, London Heathrow-Düsseldorf, Paris-Geneva, Paris-Munich, Paris-Berlin, Frankfurt-Zürich, Zürich-Zagreb, Zürich-Vienna, Zürich-Delhi, Manchester-Brussels, Lisbon-Madrid, Brussels-Prague, London Heathrow-Delhi, London Heathrow-Good, London Heathrow-Mumbai-Singapore, Montego Bay-Kingston (KIN), and Santiago-Buenos Aires. Nevertheless, these had been changed with nonstop routes: Vancouver-Sydney, Toronto-Munich, Toronto-Brussels, Toronto-Zürich, Vancouver-Zürich, Toronto-Vienna, Toronto-Delhi, Vancouver-Delhi, Toronto-Madrid, and Toronto-Mumbai.[102][103]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Air Canada codeshares with the next airways:[104]

Interline agreements[edit]

Air Canada have Interline agreements with the next airways:[106]

As of November 2020, Air Canada operates following plane; all Airbus and Boeing.[107][108]


Air Canada has three lessons of service, Enterprise/Signature, Premium Financial system, and Financial system. On most long-haul worldwide and short-haul routes operated by widebody plane, Signature Class, Premium Financial system Class, and Financial system Class are provided;[37][39] most short-haul and home routes function Enterprise Class and Financial system Class.[36][38] All mainline seats function AVOD (Audio Video On Demand) and temper lighting. Air Canada Specific options Enterprise Class and Financial system Class, on CRJ900 and Embraer 175 plane; all different Air Canada Specific plane have one-class economic system cabins. All narrowbody mainline plane, in addition to Air Canada Specific Bombardier CRJ900 and Embraer 175 plane have onboard WiFi put in, which can also be being put in on all widebody plane.

Within the spring of 1987, Air Canada enacted no-smoking flights between Canada and New York Metropolis as a take a look at. After a survey reported that 96% of passengers supported the smoking ban, Air Canada prolonged the ban to different flights.[109]


Signature Class[edit]

Basic pod

Govt pod

The airline’s Signature Class has two varieties of pods, depending on the kind of plane

Air Canada’s Signature Class (initially Govt First) cabins can be found on all widebody plane. There are two totally different cabins accessible: the Govt Pod and the Basic Pod.[39] All companies function AVOD (Audio Video On Demand) on a contact display screen, noise cancelling headphones, and music supplied by XM Satellite tv for pc Radio.[110]

Govt Pods are featured on all Boeing 777s, 787s and are being rolled out on the Airbus A330-300s.[111][112] These seats function digital flat beds in a 1–2–1 reverse herringbone configuration with a 21-inch (53.3 cm) seat width and a 6-foot-7-inch (2.01 m) seat pitch.[39] AVOD is supplied with an 18-inch (45.7 cm) contact display screen.

Basic Pods function digital flat beds, in a 1–1–1 herringbone configuration these are being at present phased out on the Airbus A330-300s. The Basic Pods have a 21-inch (53.3 cm) seat width and a 6-foot-3-inch (1.91 m) seat pitch.[39] AVOD is supplied with a 12-inch (30.5 cm) contact display screen.[39]

North American Enterprise Class[edit]

Inside North America, Enterprise Class (initially Govt Class) is Air Canada’s premium product. On Embraer 190 plane (mainline) and Embraer 175 and CRJ900 plane (Air Canada Specific), the seat configuration is 1–2 abreast, with recline round 120°, and a width of 20 inches (0.51 m).[38] On Airbus and Boeing narrow-body plane, seat configuration is 2–2 abreast, with 124° recline, and 21 inches (0.53 m) width.[38] The seat pitch is 37 to 38 inches (0.94 to 0.97 m). All seats function AVOD and music is supplied by XM Satellite tv for pc Radio.[38] On Trans-Atlantic flights operated with the Boeing 737 MAX 8, this cabin is bought as Premium Financial system.

Premium Financial system Class[edit]

Premium economic system class seats in an Air Canada Boeing 787

Premium Financial system class is out there on all Airbus A330, Boeing 777, and Boeing 787 plane.[111] It incorporates a bigger seat and larger recline as in comparison with economic system class, in a 2–4–2 configuration (Boeing 777) or 2–3–2 configuration (Airbus A330 and Boeing 787) with a 20-inch (0.508 m) (Boeing 777) or 19.5-inch (0.495 m) (Boeing 787) seat width and a 37 to 38 inches (0.94 to 0.97 m) seat pitch. Leisure is private AVOD (Audio Video On Demand), whereas music is supplied by XM Satellite tv for pc Radio.[113]

Air Canada Rouge operates flights on its plane with a premium economic system class product, branded as Premium Rouge. That is bought as a enterprise class product on Rouge flights inside North America.

Financial system Class[edit]

A private video on demand unit discovered within the economic system class of Air Canada Boeing 787

In Financial system Class (initially Hospitality Service), seats are pitched 30 to 32 inches (0.76 to 0.81 m) with a width of 17.2 to 18.5 inches (0.44 to 0.47 m) and a recline to three to six inches (0.076 to 0.152 m).[37] On Air Canada Rouge plane, seats are pitched 29 to 30 inches (0.74 to 0.76 m) with a width of 17.5 to 18 inches (0.44 to 0.46 m) and three to five inches (0.076 to 0.127 m) of recline and doesn’t function any IFE system (In Flight Leisure). Configuration is 3–4–Three on the Boeing 777, 3–3–Three on the Boeing 787, 2–4–2 on the Airbus A330, 3–Three on the Boeing 737 MAX and the Airbus A320 household, 2-Three on the Airbus A220, and a pair of–2 on Bombardier, De Havilland, and Embraer plane. All Airbus, Boeing, and Embraer plane, in addition to the CRJ900 are fitted with private AVOD (audio-video on demand). Music is supplied by XM Satellite tv for pc Radio.[37]

Complimentary meals are provided on all worldwide flights outdoors of North America. For home, North American, solar vacation spot and Caribbean flights, meals and alcoholic drinks may be bought by Air Canada Bistro (GuestLogix level of sale terminals are used) whereas non-alcoholic drinks are complimentary.

On all narrowbody plane and newly renovated A330s, there’s an additional legroom Most well-liked Seat part within the first few rows and bulkhead and exit rows afterward of the economic system cabin which gives as much as Four inches (0.10 m) extra seat pitch (approx. 34 to 36 inches (0.86 to 0.91 m), plane dependent). All Air Canada Rouge planes provide Rouge Plus seats, that are similar to the Most well-liked Seats, however with as much as 6 inches (0.15 m) extra seat pitch (35″ on A319s and 36″ on 767s) in addition to an extra 2 inches (0.051 m) of recline.

Air Canada Specific[edit]

Air Canada Specific flights operated by CRJ200, Sprint 8-/300/Q400 plane provide a bar and refreshment service on board. The CRJ900 and E175 options Enterprise Class and private AVOD at each seat. Flights on board the E175, CRJ200/900 and Q400 that are 90 minutes or extra function Onboard Café .

Cabin crew[edit]

Chief steward of an Air Canada flight in 2015. The steward is pictured within the airline’s former midnight blue uniform, used from 2004 to 2017.

On 9 February 2017, a brand new uniform scheme coinciding with Canada’s 150th and Air Canada’s 80th anniversaries was unveiled. Air Canada partnered with Vancouver-born dressmaker Christopher Bates to design the brand new uniforms which incorporate a base color of black or gray with purple lettering and the well-known maple leaf.[114]

Between 2004 and 2017, Air Canada uniforms used a midnight blue color. The uniforms had been designed by Canadian dressmaker Debbie Shuchat. At a presentation within the Toronto Airport hangar, Celine Dion helped the newly solvent airline debut its new picture.[27]


Air Canada has 23 Maple Leaf Lounges[115] positioned in any respect main airports throughout Canada and at worldwide areas together with London-Heathrow, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Los Angeles, Newark and New York-LaGuardia.[116] The Maple Leaf Lounges can be found to passengers holding a identical day ticket on Air Canada in Enterprise Class, Star Alliance Gold Members, Air Canada Tremendous Elite, Air Canada Elite, Air Canada Maple Leaf Membership members, American Specific Maple Leaf Membership members, American Specific AeroplanPlus Platinum holders, holders of a one time visitor move or economic system passengers who’ve bought lounge entry throughout reserving.[117]

Air Canada shares an Arrivals Lounge at London Heathrow Terminal 2 with another Star Alliance members. It’s accessible to eligible passengers arriving into London from any Air Canada worldwide flight, holding a confirmed same-day abroad journey boarding card. Eligible teams embrace Enterprise Class Passengers, Air Canada Tremendous Elite, Air Canada Elite, Air Canada Maple Leaf Membership Members or American Specific Maple Leaf Membership.[118]

Travellers who maintain paid memberships to affiliated Star Alliance lounges, such because the United Membership, are additionally eligible for entry to Maple Leaf Lounges.[119]

Frequent flyer program[edit]

Aeroplan is Air Canada’s frequent flyer rewards program, each permitting for factors assortment and spending, in addition to standing and rewards as an Air Canada buyer. After Air Canada and Aeroplan modified the division of factors assortment and redemption, Air Canada launched an inner rewards program, Altitude. The 2 packages function in conjunction.

On 11 Might 2017, Air Canada introduced it plans to launch a brand new loyalty program to exchange Aeroplan and Altitude in 2020.[120] On 10 January 2019, Air Canada re-acquired Aeroplan from Aimia.[121][122]

Air Canada Altitude[edit]

On 20 September 2012, Air Canada unveiled its new frequent flyer standing program named “Air Canada Altitude” to complement Aeroplan. Aeroplan remained the frequent flyer rewards program, amassing miles which may be “spent”, whereas standing stage is decided by Altitude standing.

There are 5 ranges of membership in Air Canada’s Altitude Program: Fundamental, Status 25Ok, Elite 35Ok, Elite 50Ok, Elite 75Ok and Tremendous Elite 100Ok. The latter three are referred to as “Prime Tier” membership ranges and supply journey advantages similar to upgrades, lounge entry, precedence companies (e.g., check-in, baggage dealing with), and bonuses when incomes miles by air journey. So as to qualify for these ranges, a member should earn, by flight actions, a sure variety of miles or a sure variety of segments and spending some stage of cash. Altitude refers to those as Altitude Qualifying Miles (AQM), Segments (AQS), and {Dollars} (AQD).

Status members and Altitude Elite 35 Ok obtain Star Alliance Silver standing, whereas Elite 50Ok, Elite 75Ok, and Tremendous Elite 100Ok members obtain Star Alliance Gold standing.

Air Canada Standing Miles are calculated on an annual foundation (1 January by 31 December) to find out Altitude Membership Standing for the next profit 12 months (1 March by 28 February). On the 35Ok and above ranges, that stage of standing is granted when achieved, for the rest of the present 12 months, in addition to for the following 12 months.

This coincides with the alliance with Star Alliance, and this can provide you entry to any Star Alliance lounge (you should be Star Alliance Gold) and reductions or upgrades on one other Star Alliance member.

Standing necessities[edit]

Starting 1 January 2016, for the 2017 standing 12 months, Air Canada started requiring a minimal spend stage for every stage, Altitude Qualifying {Dollars}. The necessities weren’t modified for 2018, and thus are at present at:

  • Altitude Status: 25,000 AQM or 25 AQS and $3,000 AQD
  • Altitude Elite 35Ok: 35,000 AQM or 35 AQS and $4,000 AQD
  • Altitude Elite 50Ok: 50,000 AQM or 50 AQS and $6,000 AQD
  • Altitude Elite 75Ok: 75,000 AQM or 75 AQS and $9,000 AQD
  • Altitude Tremendous Elite: 100,000 AQM or 95 AQS and $20,000 AQD

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Date Flight quantity Description
13 June 1964
Vickers Viscount registration CF-THT was broken past economical restore when it crash-landed at Toronto Airport after the failure of two engines on method.[123]
19 Might 1967
McDonnell Douglas DC-8-54F CF-TJM crashed and burned on a coaching flight whereas making a three-engine touchdown at Ottawa, Ontario. All three crew members had been killed. There have been no passengers on the flight.[124]
11 September 1968
A Vickers Viscount of Air Canada was hijacked by a Cuban passenger.[125]
7 April 1969
Vickers Viscount registration CF-THK was broken past financial restore by a fireplace which occurred on takeoff from Sept-Îles Airport. The plane landed again at Sept-Îles, however one passenger was killed within the fireplace.[126]
1 March 1970
Vickers Viscount CF-THY collided in mid-air with Ercoupe 415 CF-SHN on method to Vancouver Worldwide Airport. The Ercoupe pilot was killed.[127]
5 July 1970
McDonnell Douglas DC-8-63 registration CF-TIW exploded from a gas line rupture brought on by engine Four placing the runway in Toronto, Ontario, throughout a touchdown try. All 109 passengers/crew had been killed.[128]
26 December 1971
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Flight departed Thunder Bay, Ontario for Toronto, Ontario. Hijacker Patric Dolan Critton handed a word 20 minutes earlier than touchdown that learn: “Assume. We’ve got fragmentary grenades, and a .38 caliber revolver. Take me to the captain. We will Havana. That is no joke.” The hijacker permitted the 82 passengers on board to get off the plane earlier than the flight was rerouted to Cuba. After leaving the hijacker in Havana, the Air Canada plane safely returned to Toronto. Citton was arrested in New York on different costs in 2001 and, after serving his sentence, was extradited to Canada the place he was charged with kidnapping. In 1971 there was no offence of hijacking within the Canadian Felony Code. He was sentenced to 5 years in jail however was launched on parole after serving two years.[129][130]
21 June 1973
McDonnell Douglas DC-8-53, registration CF-TIJ caught fireplace and was burnt out throughout refuelling at Terminal 2, Toronto Pearson Worldwide Airport, Ontario; no fatalities.[131]
26 June 1978
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, registration CF-TLV overran the runway in Toronto after a blown tire aborted the takeoff. Two of the 107 folks on board had been killed.[132]
17 September 1979
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, registration C-FTLU left Logan Worldwide Airport in Boston, MA for Yarmouth, NS as Flight 680. Roughly 14 minutes after takeoff, the whole tailcone part of the plane separated leading to fast decompression at an altitude of 25,000 ft (7,600 m), leaving a big gap within the rear fuselage. A beverage cart and different gadgets within the cabin had been sucked out of the plane over the Atlantic Ocean, however there have been no fatalities or important accidents. The plane safely returned to Boston. Fatigue cracks had been decided to be the trigger. This identical plane could be destroyed by a fireplace almost 4 years afterward 2 June 1983 as Air Canada Flight 797[133][134]
2 June 1982
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 registration C-FTLY exploded throughout a upkeep interval in Montreal, Quebec; no fatalities.[135]
2 June 1983
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 C-FTLU had {an electrical} fireplace within the aft bathroom throughout flight, leading to an emergency touchdown at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Worldwide Airport. Throughout the emergency evacuation, the sudden inflow of oxygen brought about a flash fireplace all through the cabin, ensuing within the deaths of 23 of the 41 passengers, together with Canadian folks singer Stan Rogers. All 5 crew members survived. The captain was the final particular person to exit the plane.[136] This incident was additionally featured as “Fireplace Flight” of Canadian tv sequence Mayday season Four episode 3 (referred to as “Fiery Touchdown” of Air Emergency within the US, Air Crash Investigation within the UK and Australia). That is Air Canada’s most up-to-date deadly accident.
23 July 1983
Boeing 767-200 registration C-GAUN glided to an emergency touchdown in Gimli after working out of gas 12,300 metres (40,400 ft) above Purple Lake, Ontario. Some folks suffered minor accidents through the evacuation as a result of steep angle of the escape slides on the rear of the plane, brought on by the collapse of the nostril gear. This incident was the topic of the TV film, Falling from the Sky: Flight 174 and the e book, Freefall, by William Hoffer.[137] This incident was additionally featured on the Nationwide Geographic Channel and Discovery Channel sequence Mayday season 5 episode 6. This flight is commonly known as the Gimli Glider.
16 December 1997
Air Canada Flight 646 departed Toronto-Lester B. Pearson Worldwide Airport, Ontario, at 9:24 PM japanese customary time on a scheduled flight to Fredericton, New Brunswick. On arrival, the Canadair CRJ-100 plane, registration C-FSKI, skilled an unstabilized method in poor visibility and stalled aerodynamically throughout a late go-around try. The plane skidded 2,100 ft (640 m) from the purpose of contact down and hit a tree. An evacuation was performed; nevertheless, seven passengers had been trapped within the plane till rescued. Of the 39 passengers and three crew members, 9 had been critically injured and the remaining obtained minor or no accidents. The accident occurred at 11:48 PM Atlantic customary time.[138] Air Canada was closely criticized within the media over its staff allegedly coming into the crash web site and eradicating the plane decals figuring out its operator with out the permission of the authorities.
29 March 2015
Air Canada Flight 624 was an Airbus A320 C-FTJP flying from Toronto Pearson Worldwide Airport to Halifax Stanfield Worldwide Airport. After 15 minutes in a holding sample resulting from a extreme winter storm and poor visibility, throughout method in Halifax, the airplane impacted the runway method lights and energy strains knocking out energy and communications on the airport. It then impacted the bottom 300m in need of the runway, persevering with on to impression the localizer antenna array, and breaking off its touchdown gear. The airplane then touched down a second time and slid down the runway, dropping one in every of its engines. All 133 passengers and 5 crew evacuated and survived. 23 folks had been despatched to the hospital with non-life-threatening accidents.[139][140][141] The plane was written off.[142]
7 July 2017
On the conclusion of the recurrently scheduled worldwide passenger flight from Toronto to San Francisco, Air Canada Flight 759 almost landed on a taxiway which already had 4 totally loaded and fueled plane holding brief for takeoff. A retired pilot said the runway confusion that just about occurred “most likely got here near the best aviation catastrophe in historical past” as 5 plane and over 1,000 passengers had been at imminent threat.[143][144]
Three February 2020
Air Canada Flight 837, a Boeing 767-300, suffered a rear tyre failure throughout take-off at Madrid–Barajas Airport on its solution to Toronto, inflicting its left engine to catch fireplace. The pilots managed to extinguish it by shutting the engine down, however as 767-300s aren’t designed for gas dumping, it needed to keep in a single-engine holding sample for over Four hours to burn gas and obtain its most touchdown weight, whereas an SAF fighter reported minimal harm to the touchdown gear. The airplane landed safely and no person was injured.[145]

Privateness considerations[edit]

In February 2019, TechCrunch reported the Air Canada cellular app within the iOS App Retailer was utilizing the Glassbox session-replay performance to document customers’ actions with out the customers’ knowledgeable consent, compromising customers’ privateness and contravening the principles of the iOS App Retailer.[146] In response, Apple knowledgeable utility builders that in the event that they continued to flout the principles of the iOS App Retailer, their apps could be faraway from it.[147] The Glassbox session-replay performance was eliminated in January 2019, previous to the publishing of the TechCrunch article and the Air Canada app was by no means faraway from the iOS App Retailer.

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Additional studying[edit]

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

Media associated to Air Canada at Wikimedia Commons

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