Flag-carrier and second-largest airline of Eire; a part of Worldwide Airways Group

Aer Lingus (, an anglicisation of the Irish aerloingeas[3][4] which means “air fleet”) is the flag provider airline of Eire. Based by the Irish authorities, it was privatised between 2006 and 2015 and it’s now an entirely owned subsidiary of Worldwide Airways Group (IAG). The airline’s head workplace is on the grounds of Dublin Airport in Cloghran, County Dublin.

Fashioned in 1936, Aer Lingus is a former member of the Oneworld airline alliance, which it left on 31 March 2007. After the takeover by IAG, it was anticipated that Aer Lingus would re-enter Oneworld, nevertheless, at a press briefing on 15 November 2017 the airline’s then CEO Stephen Kavanagh acknowledged that the airline has “no plans to hitch Oneworld”.[5] The airline has codeshares with Oneworld, Star Alliance and SkyTeam members, in addition to interline agreements with Etihad Airways, JetBlue Airways and United Airways. Aer Lingus has a hybrid enterprise mannequin,[6] working a combined fare service[7] on its European routes and full service, two-class flights on transatlantic routes.

Ryanair owned over 29% of Aer Lingus inventory and the Irish state owned over 25% earlier than being purchased out by IAG in 2015. The state had beforehand held an 85% shareholding till the Authorities’s resolution to drift the corporate on the Dublin and London inventory exchanges on 2 October 2006. The principal group firms embody Aer Lingus Restricted, Aer Lingus Beachey Restricted, Aer Lingus (Eire) Restricted and Dirnan Insurance coverage Firm Restricted, all of that are wholly owned.[8]

On 26 Might 2015, after months of negotiations on a attainable IAG takeover, the Irish authorities agreed to promote its 25% stake within the firm. Ryanair retained a 30% stake in Aer Lingus which it agreed to promote to IAG on 10 July 2015 for €2.55 per share.[9][10] In August 2015, Aer Lingus’ shareholders formally accepted IAG’s takeover supply.[11] IAG subsequently assumed management of Aer Lingus on 2 September 2015.[12]

Historical past[edit]

Early years[edit]

Aer Lingus was based on 15 April 1936, with a capital of £100,000. Its first chairman was Seán Ó hUadhaigh.[13] Pending laws for Authorities funding by a guardian firm, Aer Lingus was related to Blackpool and West Coast Air Providers which superior the cash for the primary plane, and operated with Aer Lingus underneath the frequent title “Irish Sea Airways”.[14][15] Aer Lingus Teoranta was registered as an airline on 22 Might 1936.[16] The title Aer Lingus was proposed by Richard F O’Connor, who was County Cork Surveyor, in addition to an aviation fanatic.

A DH.84 Dragon, repainted within the livery of Aer Lingus’ unique plane “Iolar”.

On 27 Might 1936, 5 days after being registered as an airline, its first service started between Baldonnel Airfield in Dublin and Bristol (Whitchurch) Airport, the UK, utilizing a six-seater de Havilland DH.84 Dragon biplane (registration EI-ABI), named Iolar (Eagle).

Later that yr, the airline acquired its second plane, a four-engined biplane de Havilland DH.86 Specific named “Éire”, with a capability of 14 passengers.[15] This plane offered the primary air hyperlink between Dublin and London by extending the Bristol service to Croydon. On the identical time, the DH.84 Dragon was used to inaugurate an Aer Lingus service on the Dublin-Liverpool route.

The airline was established because the nationwide provider underneath the Air Navigation and Transport Act (1936).[16] In 1937, the Irish authorities created Aer Rianta (now referred to as Dublin Airport Authority), an organization to imagine monetary duty for the brand new airline and your entire nation’s civil aviation infrastructure. In April 1937, Aer Lingus grew to become wholly owned by the Irish authorities through Aer Rianta.

The airline’s first Common Supervisor was Dr J.F. (Jeremiah referred to as ‘Jerry’) Dempsey, a chartered accountant, who joined the corporate on secondment from Kennedy Crowley & Co (predecessor to KPMG) as Firm Secretary in 1936 (aged 30) and was appointed to the function of Common Supervisor in 1937. He retired 30 years later in 1967 on the age of 60.

In 1938, a de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide changed Iolar, and the corporate bought a second DH.86B. Two Lockheed 14s arrived in 1939, Aer Lingus’ first all-metal plane.

In January 1940, a brand new airport opened within the Dublin suburb of Collinstown and Aer Lingus moved its operations there. It bought a brand new DC-Three and inaugurated new providers to Liverpool and an inside service to Shannon. The airline’s providers had been curtailed throughout World Struggle II with the only real route being to Liverpool or Barton Aerodrome Manchester relying on the fluctuating safety scenario.

Submit-war growth[edit]

On 9 November 1945, common providers had been resumed with an inaugural flight to London. From this level Aer Lingus plane, initially largely Douglas DC-3s, had been painted in a silver and inexperienced livery. The airline launched its first flight attendants.

In 1946, a brand new Anglo-Irish settlement gave Aer Lingus unique UK visitors rights from Eire in trade for a 40% holding by British Abroad Airways Company (BOAC) and British European Airways (BEA). Due to Aer Lingus’ development the airline purchased seven new Vickers Viking plane in 1947, nevertheless, these proved to be uneconomical and had been quickly bought.

In 1947, Aerlínte Éireann got here into existence to function transatlantic flights to New York Metropolis from Eire. The airline ordered 5 new Lockheed L-749 Constellations, however a change of presidency and a monetary disaster prevented the service from beginning. John A Costello, the incoming High quality Gael Taoiseach (Prime Minister), was not a eager supporter of air journey and thought that flying the Atlantic was too grandiose a scheme for a small airline from a small nation like Eire.[17]

Throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, Aer Lingus launched routes to Brussels, Amsterdam through Manchester and to Rome. Due to the increasing route construction, the airline grew to become one of many early purchasers of Vickers Viscount 700s in 1951, which had been positioned in service in April 1954. In 1952, the airline expanded its all-freight providers and bought a small fleet of Bristol 170 Freighters, which remained in service till 1957.

Prof. Patrick Lynch was appointed the chairman of Aer Lingus and Aer Rianta in 1954[18][19] and served within the place till 1975.[20] In 1956, Aer Lingus launched a brand new, green-top livery with a white lightning flash down the home windows and the Irish flag displayed on the fin.

First transatlantic service[edit]

A Boeing 720 in Aer Lingus-Irish Worldwide livery in 1965.

On 28 April 1958, Aerlínte Éireann operated its first transatlantic service from Shannon to New York.[21][22] In 1960, Aerlínte Éireann was renamed Aer Lingus.[22]

Aer Lingus purchased seven Fokker F27 Friendships, which had been delivered between November 1958 and Might 1959. These had been utilized in short-haul providers to the UK, regularly changing the Dakotas, till Aer Lingus changed them in 1966 with secondhand Viscount 800s.[23]

The airline entered the jet age on 14 December 1960 when it acquired three Boeing 720 to be used on the New York route and the latest Aer Lingus vacation spot Boston.

In 1963, Aer Lingus added Aviation Merchants Carvairs to the fleet. These plane may transport 5 automobiles which had been loaded into the fuselage by the nostril of the plane. The Carvair proved to be uneconomical for the airline partly as a result of rise of auto ferry providers, and the plane had been used for freight providers till disposed of.

The Boeing 720s proved to be a hit for the airline on the transatlantic routes. To complement these, Aer Lingus took supply of its first bigger Boeing 707 in 1964, and the sort continued to serve the airline till 1986.

Jet plane[edit]

Conversion of the European fleet to jet tools started in 1965 when the BAC One-Eleven began providers on continental Europe.[23] The airline adopted a brand new livery in the identical yr, with a big inexperienced shamrock on the fin.[24] In 1966, the rest of the corporate’s shares held by Aer Rianta had been transferred to the Minister for Finance.

In 1966, the corporate added routes to Montreal and Chicago.[23] In 1968, flights from Belfast, in Northern Eire, to New York Metropolis began, nevertheless, it was quickly suspended as a result of starting of the Troubles.[25] Aer Lingus launched Boeing 737s to its fleet in 1969 to deal with the excessive demand for flights between Dublin and London.[25] Later, Aer Lingus prolonged the 737 flights to all of its European networks.[25]

In 1967, after 30 years of service, Common Supervisor Dr J.F. Dempsey signed the contract for the airline’s first two Boeing 747 plane earlier than he retired later that yr.

1970s to current[edit]

A BAC One-Eleven within the outdated livery at Zurich Airport, Switzerland in 1975.

On 6 March 1971, Aer Lingus took supply of the primary of two Boeing 747s to be used on the transatlantic routes.[26][27] The corporate later bought a 3rd for its fleet however shortly supplied it for lease as a result of it was not initially worthwhile for the corporate to fly 747s throughout the Atlantic. In 1974, Aer Lingus unveiled a brand new livery which eradicated the phrase Worldwide and/or Irish from the fuselage titles. The livery included two colors of blue and one inexperienced, plus the white shamrock on the fin.

In 1977, Aer Lingus recruited its first feminine pilot, Gráinne Cronin – the airline was the second in Europe (after SAS) to introduce feminine pilots.[28]

In September 1979, Aer Lingus grew to become the primary European airline apart from Alitalia for use by Pope John Paul II, when he flew aboard a specifically modified Boeing 747 (EI-ASI or St. Patrick) from Rome to Dublin and later from Shannon to Boston. Within the early 1980s, the 707s had been phased out.

In 1984, the airline fashioned a totally owned subsidiary, Aer Lingus Commuter, in order that Aer Lingus may fly to bigger cities in Eire and Britain whose flying time from Dublin didn’t require jet plane. These providers employed 5 of the Belfast-built Quick 360 after conducting a trial with the Quick 330. Round this time Aer Lingus bought a majority shareholding within the cargo airline Aer Turas, proprietor of some DC-Eight freighter jets.

Between 1987 and 1989, new Boeing 737s arrived to exchange the older ones, and 6 Fokker 50s had been added to the Commuter fleet. Throughout 1990, after the passage of the deregulation act for the airline business in Eire, Aer Lingus reconsidered its operational insurance policies. It retired the BAC One-Elevens and changed them with 5 new 737s. In 1991, 4 Saab 340Bs arrived on the commuter division to exchange the Quick 360 plane. By 1992, Aer Lingus’s whole unique 737-200 fleet had been changed and it was now the primary provider on the planet working all three variations of the second-generation 737. These had been the −300, −400 and −500 sequence, though the −300 didn’t keep lengthy in Aer Lingus service.

Airbus operations[edit]

In 1994, Aer Lingus began direct providers between Dublin and the USA utilizing the Airbus A330 and in Might of that yr, Aer Lingus operated the primary A330-300 ETOPS service over the North Atlantic. This led to the phasing out of the Boeing 747 and the briefly operated Boeing 767-300ER. On 2 October 1995, the Boeing 747 service ceased operations after twenty-five years of service. By that point, over eight million individuals had travelled throughout the Atlantic in Aer Lingus Boeing 747s. The late 1990s noticed Aer Lingus return to Belfast with service to New York through Shannon. It additionally added Newark Liberty Worldwide Airport as a vacation spot, however discontinued these flights in 2001.

The primary Airbus short-haul plane arrived in 1998 within the type of the A321, initially to primarily function the Dublin-Heathrow route. Six had been delivered in 1998 and 1999 and three of those proceed in service as we speak. The primary A320 was delivered in 2000, with three extra added to the fleet by 2001.

On 1 February 2001, Aer Lingus Commuter merged again into the mainline operation. The enterprise was severely affected by the 11 September assaults. In response, the airline minimize employees numbers and locations and diminished its fleet. Consequently, it weathered the storm and returned to revenue, largely by decreasing the airline’s price base, updating the fleet with fashionable Airbus tools and growing new routes to mainland European locations. Aer Lingus had beforehand largely uncared for mainland Europe in favour of US and British locations. It positioned itself as competitors to the European no-frills airways whereas providing intercontinental flights, phased-out Enterprise class journey for short-haul flights, however retained cargo providers on a small variety of routes.

A big order for A320 plane noticed deliveries commencing in 2004 and persevering with to 2011. The supply of those plane allowed the withdrawal of the Boeing 737. On 29 October 2005, Aer Lingus withdrew its final two 737 plane from service, marking the top of Boeing plane at Aer Lingus, and the start of an all-Airbus fleet.

On 27 October 2005, Aer Lingus introduced its first scheduled service to Asia from March 2006 as Dubai Worldwide Airport within the United Arab Emirates, the place Chief Government Dermot Mannion was based mostly when at Emirates.[29] Regardless of the Aer Lingus press launch describing it as the primary long-haul service exterior the USA, there had in reality been a earlier service to Montreal from 1966 to 1979. The good circle distance of 5,926 kilometres (3,682 mi) is similar to the service to Chicago. On the identical time, Mannion linked the funding of recent long-haul plane to exchange the A330 fleet with the privatisation of the airline.[30] The Dubai service ceased in March 2008 because the airline sought to extend its market share within the newly liberalised transatlantic market.

On 6 June 2007, Aer Lingus strengthened its relationship with the European producer by ordering six of the brand new A350-900 and 6 A330-300. These had been used to increase long-haul operations in addition to exchange three older fashions. Deliveries of the A330 started in February 2009. In, 2011 Aer Lingus switched their remaining three A330 orders to A350-900s, with supply no before 2017. The A350 orders had been subsequently assumed by IAG in 2015.[31][32]

Flotation[edit]

The Aer Lingus brand painted on an Airbus A330 winglet.

In preparation for the industrial flotation of Aer Lingus on the Dublin inventory market, the Irish authorities agreed to abolish the Shannon Stopover from the top of 2006 in phases.

The corporate started conditional (or “grey-market”) share dealings on 27 September 2006 and was formally admitted to the Official Lists of the Irish Inventory Trade and London Inventory Trade on 2 October 2006. On the time of the flotation, the Irish authorities maintained a 28% shareholding, whereas staff held 15%. The inventory IPO supply worth was E2.20.[33][34]

Aer Lingus withdrew from the Oneworld airline alliance on 31 March 2007, as an alternative, coming into into bilateral agreements with airways together with British Airways, Virgin Atlantic, Delta Air Traces, KLM, and United Airways. Aer Lingus defined the transfer stating the provider was repositioning as a low-cost provider, which didn’t match with Oneworld’s pitch to the premium worldwide frequent flyer.

On 6 February 2007, nevertheless, the airline introduced its intention to type a brand new alliance with JetBlue. This new alliance was to behave as a weblink between the 2 airways, enabling Aer Lingus prospects to e-book JetBlue locations from the Aer Lingus web site. In 2008, it additionally introduced an alliance with United Airways for connecting providers throughout the US.

With the flotation of Aer Lingus on the inventory trade, Aer Lingus had deliberate to increase its route community, however this was placed on maintain as a result of financial scenario.

First Ryanair takeover bid (2006)[edit]

On 5 October 2006, Ryanair launched a bid to purchase Aer Lingus. Ryanair CEO Michael O’Leary stated the transfer was a “distinctive alternative” to type an Irish airline. The “new” airline would carry over 50 million passengers a yr. Ryanair stated it had purchased a 16% stake in Aer Lingus and was providing €2.80 for the remaining shares, a premium over the €2.20 the shares had been buying and selling for. The agency was buying and selling at €1.13bn however Ryanair’s supply valued it at €1.48bn.[35] On the identical day Aer Lingus rejected Ryanair’s takeover bid.[36] On 5 October 2006, Ryanair confirmed it had raised its stake to 19.2%, and stated it had no downside within the Irish Authorities retaining its 28.3%. The Irish Instances reported that the Authorities might search judgement from the courts, and referral to competitors authorities in Dublin – though this is able to be automated underneath European regulation, because the mixed group would management 78% of the Dublin – London passenger air visitors.[37]

On 29 November 2006, Ryanair confirmed it had taken its stake to 26.2%.[38]

On 21 December 2006, Ryanair introduced it was withdrawing its bid for Aer Lingus, with the intent of pursuing one other bid quickly after the European Fee finishes investigating the bid. The EC has been involved that the takeover would cut back shopper selection and enhance fares.[39]

On 27 June 2007, the European Fee introduced its resolution to dam the bid on competitors grounds saying the 2 airways managed greater than 80% of all European flights to and from Dublin Airport.[40]

Cross border growth[edit]

On 7 August 2007, the airline introduced that it might set up its first base exterior the Republic of Eire at Belfast Worldwide Airport in Northern Eire. Providers from Belfast Worldwide commenced in December 2007. As of July 2008, the airline had three Airbus A320 plane based mostly on the airport, serving eleven European locations. Considerably, this transfer restored the Belfast Worldwide to London Heathrow Airport hyperlink and Aer Lingus cooperated with its codeshare associate British Airways on this route to attach with BA’s community at Heathrow. To take action, the airline discontinued its Shannon-Heathrow service, a transfer that generated political controversy within the west of Eire, notably because the Shannon-London route was nonetheless worthwhile. The airline predicted that this transfer would add a million further passengers yearly.[41][42] The Shannon to Heathrow service has since been reinstated.

After 5 years at Belfast Worldwide Airport, Aer Lingus introduced on 19 July 2012 that it might be transferring its operations to George Greatest Belfast Metropolis Airport. The airline transferred its Belfast – London Heathrow flights to there, and likewise introduced the operation of a thrice-daily London Gatwick service (not operated), and on 31 March 2013, launched providers to Faro and Málaga. Aer Lingus based mostly 2 plane in Belfast Metropolis Airport for the Winter 2012–2013 season and a 3rd plane arrived for the Summer time 2013 season.

Open Skies[edit]

On 22 March 2007, because of the EU–US Open Skies Settlement, Aer Lingus introduced three new long-haul providers to the USA. From Autumn 2007, Aer Lingus commenced direct flights to Orlando, San Francisco and Washington, D.C.-Dulles, facilitated by the arrival of two new Airbus A330 plane in Might 2007. The airline additionally serves Boston (Logan Worldwide Airport), Chicago (O’Hare Worldwide Airport), and New York (JFK Airport). Aer Lingus ended its Center-Japanese Path to Dubai in March 2008 and ended its Los Angeles route in November 2008. The Washington and the San Francisco routes had been discontinued as of 24 October 2009. Providers from Washington, D.C. resumed on 28 March 2010 when the airline started flights from Washington D.C. to Madrid, Spain in a three way partnership with United Airways. The airline terminated this route on 30 October 2012.[43] Providers from San Francisco have since resumed on 2 April 2014. New Route: Dublin-Washington Aer Lingus has given particulars of its Summer time 2015 schedule which incorporates the introduction of a brand new, 4 occasions weekly summer time service from Dublin to Washington-Dulles beginning Might 2015. The Dublin-Los Angeles route was reintroduced on Four Might 2016.

Results of world monetary disaster[edit]

After reporting losses of €22 million for the primary half of the yr, in October 2008, Aer Lingus introduced a €74 million cost-saving plan.[44] This plan included chopping as much as 1,500 job, scaled again floor operations on the Cork airport, and outsourced all floor employees on the Dubliin airport.[44] This met with a largely destructive response notably from commerce unions.[45]

In December 2008, Aer Lingus introduced that the Shannon – Heathrow service would resume from 29 March 2009 following new preparations with the commerce unions on employees prices and the Shannon Airport Authority on airport expenses.[46] Nevertheless on the finish of June 2009 the corporate had accrued losses of €93 million and Chairman Colm Barrington confirmed this example couldn’t proceed.[47] In October 2009, newly appointed Chief Government Christoph Mueller introduced a radical cost-cutting plan that may result in the lack of 676 jobs on the firm and see pay and pension reductions for these being retained. The overall plan aimed to attain financial savings of €97 million between then and 2011. As a 6-week session course of started, Mueller refused to rule out additional cuts sooner or later.[48]

Second Ryanair takeover bid (2008/2009)[edit]

On 1 December 2008, Ryanair launched a second takeover bid of Aer Lingus, making an all-cash supply of €748 million (£619mil; US$950mil). The €1.40 supply was a 28% premium on the typical closing worth of Aer Lingus inventory throughout the 30 days to 28 November 28 (€1.09), however half what Ryanair had supplied in 2006. Ryanair stated, “Aer Lingus, as a small, stand-alone, regional airline has been marginalised and bypassed as most different EU flag carriers consolidate.” The 2 airways would function individually and Ryanair claimed that it might double the Aer Lingus short-haul fleet from 33 to 66 and create 1,000 new jobs.[49][50][51] The Aer Lingus Board rejected the supply and suggested its shareholders to take no motion.[52] The supply was finally rejected by a majority of the opposite shareholders. It was the second failed try by Michael O’Leary to take over the nationwide flag provider. Ryanair initially left the supply open to Aer Lingus till it withdrew the bid on 28 January 2009.[53] The Irish Authorities slammed O’Leary’s supply as “undervaluing the airline” and acknowledged {that a} Ryanair takeover would have a “important destructive affect” on competitors within the business and on the Irish shopper.[54] Ryanair repeatedly acknowledged that one other bid was unlikely,[55] however it stored a stake in Aer Lingus, prompting an investigation by competitors regulators within the UK.[56]

In June 2009, Aer Lingus re-branded its Premier Class to the brand new Enterprise Class.

Gatwick base[edit]

An Aer Lingus Airbus A319-100 departs London-Heathrow in 2014.

Aer Lingus Airbus A320-200 lands at London Heathrow Airport, England.

On 19 December 2008, Aer Lingus introduced that it might open a base at Gatwick Airport. 4 plane had been based mostly there starting April 2009, serving eight locations that included Dublin, Faro, Knock, Málaga, Munich, Good, Vienna and Zürich. CEO Dermot Mannion additionally stated the corporate expects to extend the variety of plane based mostly at Gatwick to eight inside 12 months.[57]

As of 6 June 2009, the airline based mostly a further A320 plane at Gatwick, bringing the overall quantity to 5 and making Gatwick its greatest base exterior Eire. This resulted in six new routes to Bucharest, Eindhoven, Lanzarote, Tenerife, Vilnius and Warsaw which commenced in late October 2009. The Gatwick to Good route was suspended for the winter months.

On Eight January 2010, as a result of weak demand in air journey, Aer Lingus introduced that it was to cut back the variety of plane based mostly at Gatwick from 5 to a few. The three remaining plane had been to function the provider’s providers to Dublin, Knock and Málaga in addition to a brand new path to Cork.[58]

In January 2011, Aer Lingus introduced a brand new each day service from Gatwick to Shannon beginning on the finish of March. The service has since been suspended.[59]

The service to Málaga was suspended in January 2012 and the bottom closed in 2015.

The Gatwick to Cork route ended 27 October 2012. A brand new service from Gatwick to Belfast Metropolis Airport began on 28 October, working 3 times per day, and follows the airline’s transfer from Belfast-Worldwide Airport to Belfast Metropolis Airport. That service was suspended on 27 April 2016.

Appointment of Christoph Mueller as CEO[edit]

On 6 April 2009, CEO Dermot Mannion introduced his resignation from the airline after 4 years as Chief Government.[60] He was changed by German-born Christoph Müller (various spelling “Mueller”), former head of TUI Journey and Sabena, who joined Aer Lingus on 1 October 2009.[61]

On 2 December 2009, Aer Lingus introduced that talks with its unions had damaged down. Consequently, the board voted to cut back capability, and with it related jobs, as a response. Based on Mueller, concessions supplied by unions had been of a short-term nature, and the airline was requested for top compensation in return. Aer Lingus didn’t determine the routes or jobs to be minimize, however they’d almost certainly “start instantly and will probably be obligatory,” in response to Mueller.[62]
As of April 2010 all staff’ teams had handed votes on the acceptance of the ‘Greenfield’ cost-cutting plans which had been anticipated to avoid wasting €57M yearly. As soon as carried out the second part of cost-cutting was to start which aimed to avoid wasting €40M yearly by decreasing ‘again workplace employees’ numbers by as much as 40% in response to the CEO.

Mueller indicated that Aer Lingus supposed to reposition itself once more, transferring away from head-to-head competitors with Ryanair within the low-cost sector to a extra hybrid mannequin with a stronger emphasis on service. As a part of this transfer, Aer Lingus entered talks to hitch an airline alliance once more, having left Oneworld in 2007.[63]

Aer Lingus introduced on 15 June 2010 that it might droop providers from Shannon to Boston and New York (JFK) for 11 weeks starting January 2011.[64]

75th anniversary[edit]

Aer Lingus celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2011. On 26 March, the corporate introduced its newest plane which has been painted within the 1960s livery and the crew was sporting a number of historic uniforms.[65]

Third Ryanair takeover bid (2012)[edit]

On 19 June 2012, Ryanair introduced its intention to launch one other bid to take over Aer Lingus, at €1.30 per share, for a complete of €694 million.[66] Ryanair expressed the hope that the competitors authorities wouldn’t block this try, pointing to the current takeovers of bmi and Brussels Airways by Worldwide Airways Group (IAG) (guardian firm of Iberia and British Airways) and Lufthansa, respectively.[67]
On 20 June 2012, Aer Lingus issued a press launch stating that having reviewed Ryanair’s proposed supply, the corporate board rejected it and suggested the corporate’s shareholders to not take any motion regarding it. The assertion identified that any supply from Ryanair was unlikely to be able to completion on account of, firstly, the EU Fee’s 2007 resolution to dam the airline’s bid for Aer Lingus on the time, and, secondly, the UK Competitors Fee’s ongoing investigation of Ryanair’s minority stake in Aer Lingus. Moreover, the press launch acknowledged that the Aer Lingus board believed that Ryanair’s supply undervalued Aer Lingus, contemplating the airline’s profitability and steadiness sheet, together with money reserves over €1 billion (as of 31 March 2012).[68]

On 27 February 2013, the European Fee blocked the third try by Ryanair to take over Aer Lingus, stating that the merger would have broken shoppers’ selection and resulted in elevated fares.[69]

Virgin Atlantic wet-lease settlement[edit]

In December 2012, following the acquisition of British Midland Worldwide by British Airways, Virgin Atlantic was awarded slots to fly home routes within the UK from Heathrow Airport, ending the monopoly on these providers that BA had held since its profitable takeover. Aer Lingus equipped on a moist lease settlement 4 Airbus A320-214 plane (painted in Virgin’s colors however underneath Irish registration[31]) in addition to crew for these providers, which operated from London Heathrow to Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Manchester. Providers started on 31 March 2013 to Manchester.[70] This wet-lease settlement led to September 2015, as Virgin Atlantic cancelled its home providers.[71]

Lengthy-haul growth[edit]

In July 2013, growth into North America was introduced launching in 2014; together with a direct service from Dublin to San Francisco 5 occasions weekly and a each day service from Dublin to Toronto to be operated by Air Contractors with Boeing 757s on behalf of the airline. It was additionally introduced that transatlantic providers from Shannon to Boston and New York would function each day all yr spherical from January 2014 to Boston and from March 2014 to New York’s John F. Kennedy Worldwide Airport; nevertheless, the airline would lease Boeing 757 plane from Air Contractors to function these routes, slightly than utilizing its Airbus A330 plane because it had performed earlier than.[72] Additionally, the service to Washington Dulles airport resumed 1 Might 2015, with 4 flights weekly.[73]

Change of CEO[edit]

On 18 July 2014, Aer Lingus stated it had “been agreed” between the corporate and Mueller that he would step down as CEO and director in Might 2015. Mueller left to hitch Malaysia Airways as a part of its restructuring train.[61] On 16 February 2015 the corporate introduced that the brand new CEO and director can be Stephen Kavanagh, starting 1 March 2015.[74] As of 1 January 2019, Sean Doyle grew to become the brand new Aer Lingus CEO.[75]

IAG takeover (2014/2015)[edit]

On 14 December 2014, Worldwide Airways Group (IAG) (proprietor of British Airways, Iberia and Vueling) launched a €1bn takeover-bid (€2.30 per-share) for Aer Lingus Group plc. The Aer Lingus Board rejected the supply on 16 December 2014, with Aer Lingus commenting that the supply was, “preliminary, extremely conditional and non-binding.” It was additional famous, “The board has reviewed the proposal and believes that it basically undervalues Aer Lingus and its engaging prospects. Accordingly, the proposal was rejected…”[76]

On 9 January 2015, Aer Lingus rejected a second-bid from IAG, proposing a €2.40 per-share takeover.[77]

On 24 January 2015, IAG launched a 3rd bid for Aer Lingus, proposing a €2.55 per-share takeover supply, totalling near €1.4bn.[78]

On 27 January 2015, Aer Lingus’ Board introduced that “the monetary phrases of IAG’s third proposal for the airline are at a stage it’s keen to advocate.”, Aer Lingus stated it famous, “IAG’s intentions relating to the way forward for the corporate, specifically, that Aer Lingus would function as a separate enterprise with its personal model, administration and operations.”[79]

On 26 Might 2015, the Irish authorities agreed to the sale of its 25% shareholding to IAG, with a takeover now depending on Ryanair’s place on the matter.[9]

On 10 July 2015, Ryanair voted to promote its almost 30% stake within the airline. The takeover was later permitted by the EU and US regulators topic to IAG giving up 5 slot pairs at London Gatwick Airport.[80] On 2 September 2015, IAG assumed management of Aer Lingus.[12] On 17 September 2015, following completion of the acquisition by IAG, the corporate’s shares had been withdrawn from the Irish Inventory Trade and the London Inventory Trade.

COVID-19 (2020)[edit]

On 25 February 2020, Aer Lingus famous it had been suggested by the Division of International Affairs that journey restrictions had been being positioned on a number of Italian cities inside Italy’s Lombardy area because of an outbreak of Coronavirus there,[81] nevertheless acknowledged all flights would proceed to function,[81] additional advising all flights operated would proceed to adjust to pointers domestically from the HSE in addition to from the WHO and EASA.[81]

An Aer Lingus A330-300 in Beijing, China throughout late March 2020 retrieving PPE for Eire’s HSE.[82]

On 28 February, Aer Lingus had been knowledgeable {that a} passenger had travelled with COVID-19 on a service from Milan-Linate to Dublin[83] and that it was cooperating absolutely with the HSE and Division for International Affairs.[81] 4 Aer Lingus Cabin Crew had been additionally positioned into self-isolation from the flight in query.[83] The next day, Aer Lingus introduced flight suspensions to Northern Italy,[84] subsequently extending this on 10 March to all providers to Italy.[85]

On 13 March, the President of the USA introduced a European journey ban which initially exempted Eire,[86] nevertheless was prolonged to cowl Eire the next day.[87] Aer Lingus subsequently introduced network-wide reductions[88] which finally noticed its community of flights diminished by 95%,[89] the airways plan for its greatest summer time schedule inside its historical past was scuppered because of what grew to become a worldwide pandemic.[90] In a brief measure, the airline confirmed it was chopping hours and salaries for all staff by 50%.[91]

Later that month on 29 March, Aer Lingus flight EI9019 from Beijing, China touched down at Dublin Airport carrying important PPE for Eire’s well being service staff, it marked the beginning of lots of of flights the provider was anticipated to function to/from China on request of the Authorities.[92]

With simply 5% of scheduled flights working, it was introduced on 1 Might 2020 that Aer Lingus was searching for 900 job cuts.[93] The airline subsequently entered into talks with Commerce Unions about modifications to work practices and proposed job cuts,[94] Aer Lingus CEO Sean Doyle commented that it might take years for the aviation business to get better.[94] Aer Lingus later confirmed it was searching for additional non permanent pay cuts and modifications to work practices in a price saving train,[95] advising that its 2021 schedule can be a minimum of 20% decrease than deliberate.[95] Job cuts had been confirmed later that month, these holding non permanent contracts had been made redundant[96] and Cabin Crew based mostly in Shannon had been knowledgeable that they’d be quickly laid off because the airline was not working providers from there.[97]

On 13 June, media reporting indicated broad acceptance of proposed measures based mostly on a remaining draft doc between Aer Lingus and Commerce Unions,[98] nevertheless the next day the union Fórsa representing over 1,400 Aer Lingus Cabin Crew suggested of its intention to poll members.[99] The airline acknowledged on 15 June, that if acceptance was not agreed by 6pm that night, it might withdraw its supply and implement them unilaterally with a 70% minimize to staff’ wages excluding pilots.[100] Because the deadline handed the airline initiated the motion to implement the modifications angering Commerce Unions representing nearly all of Aer Lingus staff.[100] On 17 June, the airline agreed to permit a poll for as much as two weeks for its pilots for modifications to work practices and restoration of salaries.[101]

Company affairs[edit]

Possession and construction[edit]

Aer Lingus was listed on the Irish and London Inventory Exchanges, underneath ticker EIL1 on the Irish Inventory Trade and ticker AERL on the London Inventory Trade.[102] Nevertheless it was delisted on 17 September 2015 following its majority acquisition by IAG. Shareholdings (as of two September 2015) are:[12]

Aer Lingus Cargo[edit]

Aer Lingus Cargo is the airline’s cargo division. It makes use of reserved areas of passenger plane cargo-holds. Aer Lingus Cargo is offered on all routes to the US from Dublin and Shannon. Cargo providers are additionally supplied on most European routes and a few routes to the UK, the division subsequently rebranded as IAG Cargo.[103]

Aer Lingus Regional[edit]

Aer Lingus has a franchise settlement with Irish regional airline Stobart Air (previously Aer Arann), underneath which Stobart Air operates a number of routes underneath the Aer Lingus Regional model, livery and flight code.[104] Stobart Air has not operated any flights underneath its personal RE code since April 2012, and all its former routes have been transferred to Aer Lingus with flight numbers within the EI3XXX vary.

Enterprise traits[edit]

Following its acquisition by IAG on 18 August 2015, separate Annual Reviews are not printed for Aer Lingus, nevertheless some knowledge are proven individually throughout the IAG Annual Report. Key out there traits for Aer Lingus over current years are proven under (as at yr ending 31 December):

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Turnover (€m) 1,284 1,357 1,205 1,215 1,288 1,393 1,425 1,557 1,718 1,766 1,859 2,020
Working revenue (after distinctive gadgets) (€m) 43.8 -108.4 130 232 269 305
Revenue earlier than tax (€m) 124.8 -95.9 -154.8 -31.0 37.2 40.4 39.6 -111.5 135 226
Internet revenue (€m) 105.3 -107.8 -130.1 43.0 71.2 33.9 34.1 -95.8 118 205
Variety of staff (common FTE) 3,491 3,566 3,615 3,766
Variety of passengers (m) 9.3 10.0 10.4 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.6 9.8 10.1 10.4 10.9 13.1
Passenger load issue (%) 75.4 72.8 74.5 76.1 75.6 77.7 78.4 79.0 81.6 81.6 81.2 81.0
Variety of plane (at yr finish) 43 44 47 50 46 47 52 56
Sources [105] [106][107]
[108][109]
[110] [111] [112] [113] [114]
[115]
[116]
[117]

Enterprise mannequin[edit]

Aer Lingus adopted a “small frills” strategic method – a hybrid between a conventional legacy airline and a low-cost provider.[118] The distinction lies within the providers supplied on short-haul and long-haul flights with meals supplied free on the latter solely.

The brand new technique required appreciable negotiation with the unions, and a consensus was reached that decrease prices and a reinvention of the airline had been obligatory for its survival. The union concessions that arose from the negotiations had been detrimental to the airline’s picture nevertheless; by 2003 the wage freeze had been lifted and there have been 3,800 voluntary redundancies with no compelled layoffs. These components contributed to the airline’s reported income in 2002, 2003 and 2005, with solely a small loss recorded in 2004.[118]

Head workplace[edit]

An Airbus A320 within the retro livery at Toulouse–Blagnac Airport in 2011 earlier than supply to the airline.

The Aer Lingus head workplace is positioned on the grounds of Dublin Airport in Fingal, County Dublin.[119] Dublin Airport Authority (DAA) renovated an current constructing to create Aer Lingus’s headquarters.[120]

The HOB Website,[121] the 9.9-acre (4.0 ha) former head workplace web site contains the previous head workplace constructing, the providers annexe, the Iolar Home,[122] the Mock-Up Constructing, the ALSAA swimming pool, and varied smaller constructions and buildings.[121] The Head Workplace Constructing housed the company head workplace of Aer Lingus and its subsidiaries, and plenty of administrative capabilities, staff, and automobile parking areas, had been positioned on this constructing. The Iolar Home and Mock-Up Constructing housed coaching amenities for Aer Lingus crew and workplace area.[121] This former head workplace is proximate to the previous Ryanair head workplace. Brian Lavery of The New York Instances stated in 2004 that the proximity, described by Lavery as “just a few parking heaps away,” was “an emblem of simply how shut the competitors is to residence.”[123] In 2010, Aer Lingus introduced that it surrendered the lease on its head workplace constructing to the Dublin Airport Authority and that it might transfer its staff to Hangar 6 and different buildings within the airline’s property portfolio throughout the yr of 2011. The airline stated that its head workplace constructing, which was acknowledged by the Worldwide Enterprise Instances to require refurbishing, was too giant for the corporate’s wants following the “Greenfield” price discount programme.[122] On Eight November 2011 Aer Lingus signed the contract with the Dublin Airport Authority for the give up of the leasehold curiosity within the HOB Website. Aer Lingus would pay €22.15 million and curiosity to the DAA, with €10.55 million being paid over ten years in annual funds, with every being equal measurement. The funds will contain a 5% rate of interest each year.[121] The previous HOB Website was redeveloped into Dublin Airport Central, with the Dublin Airport Authority planning to spend €10 million. The previous head workplace grew to become One, Dublin Airport Central.[124]

Worker relations[edit]

On 30 Might 2014, Aer Lingus cabin crew staged a 24-hour strike ensuing within the cancellation of round 200 flights and the disruption of journey plans by as much as 200,000 individuals. The employees had been searching for modifications to their rosters, which the airline stated that if carried out would imply the lack of 300 jobs in Eire, which must be relocated to North America.[125]

[edit]

On 30 April 2015, it was introduced that Aer Lingus would develop into the Official Airline of the Irish Rugby Group. On the identical day, it was introduced that one plane was to be renamed “Inexperienced Spirit” and put on a particular livery for the Irish Rugby Group. One other plane would even be painted in the identical livery.[126]

Locations[edit]

As of April 2020, Aer Lingus flies to 93 locations all through Asia, Europe and North America; together with locations in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Eire, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, the UK, and the USA.

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Aer Lingus has codeshare agreements with the next airways:[127]

Present fleet[edit]

As of February 2021, Aer Lingus operates an all-Airbus fleet:[129]

Fleet growth[edit]

In January 2017, Aer Lingus introduced its intention to finalize an order for seven A321LR twinjets to develop thinner transatlantic routes which can’t be operated profitably utilizing A330s. As of November 2018, the airline has orders for fourteen A321LRs.[131]

On the 2019 Paris Air Present IAG agreed to buy 14 Airbus A321XLR plane, Eight for supply to Iberia and 6 to Aer Lingus, with choices for an extra 14 of the plane.[133] The primary plane will probably be delivered in 2023 and exchange their Boeing 757-200s.
In April 2020, Aer Lingus terminated their contract with the Irish airline CityJet which operated 2 BAE Avro RJ85’s on behalf of the airline. The plane had been primarily used for the Dublin to London-Metropolis route.

Historic fleet[edit]

An Aer Lingus Boeing 747-100 in 1980

Livery[edit]

On 17 January 2019, Aer Lingus unveiled a brand new model and livery. The refreshed model features a new typeface, refreshed shamrock and a brand new color scheme. The brand new livery consists of a white fuselage and teal engines and tail. All plane are anticipated to be painted within the new livery by the top of 2021.[134]

Providers[edit]

In-flight providers[edit]

From 2015 to 2016, Aer Lingus bought pre-packaged Tayto sandwiches on board a few of their flights.[135][136] In 2018, the corporate introduced that it might supply a complimentary glass of wine or beer on transatlantic flights.[137] That yr the corporate additionally introduced plans to supply free wifi to Good Fare transatlantic financial system prospects.[138] In 2019, Aer Lingus launched AerSpace, its premium financial system class.[139]

Frequent-flyer programme[edit]

AerClub is Aer Lingus’ frequent-flyer programme. It launched in November 2016, taking on from the airline’s earlier programme, Gold Circle. AerClub consists of 4 tiers: the entry-level Inexperienced, Silver, Platinum, and Concierge.[140] The membership makes use of Avios factors as its member foreign money.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

A memorial on the web site of the January 1952 crash.

Aer Lingus has a very good security document, with no crash fatalities up to now 50 years.

It has had 12 incidents, together with six accidents which left plane written-off (of which three had been deadly) and one hijacking.

  • On 10 January 1952, a Douglas DC-3 (truly a civilianised ex-military Dakota) registered EI-AFL and named “St. Kevin” was en route from Northolt to Dublin. It flew right into a mountain wave triggered by Snowdon and an space of utmost turbulence, then crashed in a peat lavatory close to Llyn Gwynant in Snowdonia, killing all 20 passengers and three crew. It was the corporate’s first deadly accident.[141]
  • On 1 January 1953, a Douglas DC-Three registered EI-ACF and named “St Kieran” made a compelled touchdown close to the city of Spernall, England. Each engines give up after working out of gas whereas en route from Dublin to Birmingham. All the 25 passengers and crew survived. The plane was later written off.[142]
  • On 22 June 1967, a Vickers Viscount registered EI-AOF on a pilot-training flight stalled and spun into the bottom close to Ashbourne, killing all three crew.[143]
  • On 21 September 1967, Vickers Viscount EI-AKK flying from Dublin to Bristol scraped its wing on the runway and crashed on touchdown on the vacation spot airport. All the passengers and crew survived. The plane was later written off.[144]
  • On 24 March 1968, a Vickers Viscount (registration: EI-AOM, named “St. Phelim”) en route from Cork to London crashed close to Tuskar Rock within the waters off the southeast coast of Eire. All 57 passengers and Four crew perished. The crash is generally called the Tuskar Rock Air Catastrophe in Eire. A part of the plane’s elevator spring tab was discovered a ways from the remainder of the wreckage, suggesting that it had develop into indifferent at an earlier stage. Nevertheless, the accident report reached no definitive conclusion about the reason for the crash however didn’t exclude the chance that one other plane or airborne object was concerned. Following persistent rumours that the plane’s demise was linked with close by British army workouts, a evaluate of the case information by the Air Accident Investigation Unit befell in 1998. This evaluate recognized a number of upkeep and record-keeping failures and concluded that the unique report didn’t adequately study various hypotheses not involving different plane.[145] A subsequent investigation[146] concluded that the accident occurred following a structural failure of the port tailplane, and dominated out the chance that one other plane was concerned.[citation needed]
  • On 2 Might 1981, Aer Lingus Flight 164 from Dublin to London was hijacked and diverted to Le Touquet – Côte d’Opale Airport in France. Whereas authorities negotiated with the hijacker by radio within the cockpit, French particular forces entered the rear of the plane and overpowered him. Not one of the passengers or crew had been injured throughout the hijacking. The official document exhibits the rationale as One hijacker demanded to be taken to Iran. Airplane stormed/hijacker arrested. Length of the hijacking: lower than 1 day.[147] whereas varied media reviews indicated that the person, Laurence Downey (a former Trappist monk), demanded that the Pope launch the third secret of Fátima.[148][149]
  • On 31 January 1986, Aer Lingus Flight 328, a Quick 360 registration EI-BEM on a flight from Dublin to East Midlands Airport, struck energy strains and crashed in need of the runway. There have been no fatalities however two passengers had been injured within the accident.[150]

See additionally[edit]

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Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

Media associated to Aer Lingus at Wikimedia Commons


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